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Hamidou F. Sakhanokho, Kanniah Rajasekaran, and Rowena Y. Kelley

; Medeiros et al., 2003 ). For transformation and other genetic improvement schemes, an efficient, rapid, and dependable regeneration system is required. Somatic embryogenesis is a regeneration scheme that is generally preferred over other in vitro

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Yihui Cui, Peng Zhao, Hongqiang An, Nan Lv, Zifeng Zhang, Wei Pei, and Wanjun Wang

embryogenesis may provide an alternative system to study this process in orchids. Somatic embryogenesis, a regeneration technique effective in plant mass propagation, has been established in many species, e.g., Daucus carota ( Lee et al., 2001 ; Nishiwaki et

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Li Xu, Suzhen Huang, Yulin Han, and Haiyan Yuan

). Somatic embryogenesis is the fastest system of plant regeneration and generally considered to be prerequisite for genetic transformation ( Jeknic et al., 1999 ; Karami et al., 2006 ). Therefore, several protocols for iris regeneration via somatic

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Yuyu Wang, Faju Chen, Yubing Wang, Xiaoling Li, and Hongwei Liang

strategy through micropropagation to prevent extinction. Somatic embryogenesis is an alternative method for mass propagation and production of synthetic seeds ( Cheruvathur et al., 2013 ; Levin et al., 1988 ; Tejavathi et al., 2007 ). Therefore, the aim

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Nirmal Joshee, Bipul K. Biswas, and Anand K. Yadav

explants has been reported earlier ( Banerjee et al., 1999 ; Tiwari et al., 2000 ), and there is one report of somatic embryogenesis ( Paramageetham et al., 2004 ). Plant regeneration through shoot morphogenesis is considered to have a multicellular origin

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Dušica Ćalić, Nina Devrnja, Jelena Milojević, Igor Kostić, Dušica Janošević, Snežana Budimir, and Snežana Zdravković-Korać

somatic embryogenesis (SSE) induction has only been reported in horse chestnut ( Ćalić et al., 2005a ), red chestnut ( Zdravković et al., 2008 ), and yellow bucket ( Ćalić et al., 2005b ). These studies were specifically focused on SSE on primary horse

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Les Frey, Yehoshua Saranga, and Jules Janick

Somatic embryogenesis was induced from internodal callus of `Scania', `Improved White Sim', and `Sandra' carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The optimum protocol for the induction of somatic embryogenesis included initiation of callus in liquid basal Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 3.0 μm 2,4-D followed by transfer to liquid basal medium lacking 2,4-D for embryo development. Somatic embryos originated from single cells and early embryonic development proceeded conventionally (i.e., via globular, heart-shaped, and torpedo stages), but clearly developed apical or root meristems were not always formed. A few embryos developed into seedlings and were acclimatized to ex vitro conditions. Chemical name used: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D).

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Patricia Yolanda Zapata-Castillo, Adriana-Canto Flick, Guadalupe López-Puc, Anabel Solís-Ruiz, Felipe Barahona-Pérez, Nancy Santana-Buzzy, and Lourdes Iglesias-Andreu

; Buyukalaca and Mavituna, 1996 ; Ezura et al., 1993 ; Fari and Czako, 1981 ; Ge et al., 1998 ; Gunay and Rao, 1978 ; Phillips and Hubstenberger, 1985 ; Valera-Montero and Ochoa-Alejo, 1992 ), and although less frequently, somatic embryogenesis has also

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Hamid Elhag, Mahmoud M. El-Olemy, and Mansour S. Al-Said

Somatic embryogenesis of Nigella sativa was investigated with the objective of inducing and isolating somatic embryos for biosynthetic studies. Callus cultures were initiated from leaf, stem, and root explants of axenic seedlings on MSB5 basal medium supplemented with kinetin (0.46 μm) and 2,4-D (4.5 or 13.5 μm) or NAA (5.4 or 16.2 μm) in the dark. Cultures initiated and subcultured on medium containing NAA produced friable callus with numerous roots regardless of explant type. Cultures initiated, subcultured, or both, on medium with low 2,4-D concentration produced shiny embryogenic masses. These cultures differentiated into somatic embryos on medium containing NAA. The embryos developed into leafy structures on basal medium devoid of growth regulators. When the embryogenic callus was transferred to liquid medium containing NAA, numerous embryos and clusters of embryos were released into the liquid medium but, in contrast to solid medium, development remained arrested at the early embryonic stages. The developmentally arrested embryos were tested for production of active constituents of N. sativa oil. Chemical names used: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); kinetin (K).

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Nancy Santana-Buzzy, Guadalupe López-Puc, Adriana Canto-Flick, Felipe Barredo-Pool, Eduardo Balam-Uc, Susana Avilés-Viñas, Daniela Solís-Marroquín, Carlos Lecona-Guzmán, Jericó Jabín Bello-Bello, Eunice Gómez-Uc, and Javier O. Mijangos-Cortés

Somatic embryogenesis can be described as the process through which haploid or diploid somatic cells develop into different kind of plants through the characteristic embryological stages without fusion of gametes ( Williams and Maheswaran, 1986