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T. Casey Barickman, Dean A. Kopsell and Carl E. Sams

evaluated for many years in horticultural crops. However, research in recent years focused on using PGRs to improve fruit quality parameters, such as soluble sugars, fruit color, and phytonutrients ( Buran et al., 2012 ; Gonzalez et al., 2012 ; Gu et al

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Desmond G. Mortley, Conrad K. Bonsi, Walter A. Hill, Carlton E. Morris, Carol S. Williams, Ceyla F. Davis, John W. Williams, Lanfang H. Levine, Barbara V. Petersen and Raymond M. Wheeler

were no differences in the content of starch and soluble sugars in the leaves of flight and ground-based wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown for 21 d. They also found very little difference in cell development except that chloroplasts in the

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Nicky G. Seager and Roger M. Haslemore

Experiments investigating kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson var. deliciosa] maturation were undertaken requiring the determination of total soluble sugar (TSS) and starch concentrations in numerous fruit samples. The phenol-sulfuric acid assay was judged to he a convenient method for determining TSS from tissue extracts and gave results similar to those obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The starch procedure adopted involved gelatinizing fruit tissue using hot water and a thermostable α -amylase (Termamyl); hydrolizing starch using amyloglucosidase; and determining glucose using glucose oxidase. The methods enabled one person to analyze up to 40 kiwifruit samples for TSS and starch concentrations during 9 hours and likely will be applicable to research concerning fruit development and maturation.

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C.L. Haynes, O.M. Lindstrom and M.A. Dirr

Decreasing photoperiods and decreasing temperatures induce cold acclimation and the accumulation of soluble sugars in many plants. Two cultivars of southern magnolia differing in cold hardiness and acclimation patterns, were monitored to determine photoperiod × temperature interaction on cold hardiness and soluble sugar content. Cold hardiness increased with low temperatures and short photoperiods. Total soluble sugars, sucrose, and raffinose consistently increased in the leaves and stems of both cultivars in response primarily to low temperature. `Little Gem' was less responsive to photoperiod than `Claudia Wannamaker'

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T. Casey Barickman, Thomas E. Horgan, Jennifer R. Wheeler and Carl E. Sams

boron (B) also caused lettuce to have wrinkled leaf tissue, lose apical dominance, and exhibit limited plant growth ( Petrazzini et al., 2014 ). In addition, Luo et al. (2012) found that increasing K in lettuce plants elevated soluble sugar, starch

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Daniel A. Stanley and Donald J. Huber

In previous studies, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was shown to significantly suppress peel degreening and appearance of senescent spotting of banana fruit (Stanley and Huber, 2004). In the present study, the effect of the ethylene antagonist on banana pulp soluble sugar levels and on peel soluble and total phenolics was measured. One hundred and sixty hands (10 boxes) of banana fruit (Musaacuminata cv. Cavendish) were treated with ethylene (300 μL·L-1, 24 h, 15 °C, 90% RH) at a commercial ripening facility in Bradenton, Fla., and transported by truck (15 °C) to the University of Florida. Fruit were sorted and placed in 174-L ripening chambers, where 80 hands received 500 nL·L-1 1-MCP for two 12-h periods at 18 °C, while the other 80 hands (controls) were maintained in identical containers without 1-MCP for equal time periods at 18 °C. Mean whole fruit firmness in both treatment groups was 140 N and decreased to 15 N (controls) and 30 N (1-MCP) by day 12. Soluble sugars in the pulp of control fruit achieved levels between 160–180 mg·g-1 fresh weight by day 8, while 1-MCP treated fruit required about 12 days to achieve similar soluble sugar levels. Total phenolic compounds present in peel tissue of control and 1-MCP treated fruit required 10 and 14 days, respectively, to achieve levels of about 4000 μg·g-1 fresh weight. Chlorogenic acid levels, a subset of total peel phenolic compounds, peaked above 500 μg·g-1 by day 10 in control fruit and by day 12 in 1-MCP treated fruit. Maintenance of fruit firmness along with the achievement of acceptable sugar levels of 1-MCP treated fruit demonstrate possible benefits of suppression of ethylene action for retail and processing markets for banana fruit.

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Min Wu and Chieri Kubota

Manipulation of the electrical conductivity (EC) of the hydroponic nutrient solution has been studied as an effective method to enhance flavor and nutritional value of tomato fruit. The objective of this research was to quantitatively understand the accumulation of lycopene, soluble sugars, and the degradation of chlorophyll in fruits as affected by EC and EC application timing relative to fruit ripeness stages. `Durinta' tomato was grown hydroponically inside the greenhouse under two EC (2.3 and 4.5 dS·m-1). The high EC treatment began immediately after anthesis (HEC treatment) or 4 weeks later (DHEC treatment), when fruits had reached maximum size, but still were green. Fruits were harvested weekly beginning 2 weeks after anthesis, until they reached red ripe stage. The chlorophyll concentration in tomato fruits showed no difference between treatments when compared at the same ripeness stages. The lycopene concentration of red ripe tomato fruits in HEC and DHEC treatments was 29% greater than that in low EC control (LEC treatment). However, there was no significant difference in lycopene concentration between HEC and DHEC. Both DHEC and HEC increased total soluble solid concentration (TSS) of red ripe tomato fruits compared with those grown in LEC; while the DHEC showed an increase of fruit TSS of 12%, the HEC had a greater enhancement of TSS of 19%. In addition, the fruit ripeness was accelerated under high EC, regardless of the timing of treatment. High EC treatment at early and mature green fruit developmental stages enhanced both fruit TSS and lycopene concentration; however, the nutrient solution EC effect on lycopene concentration was not dependent on the time of application during fruit development.

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Xun Li, Wenying Chu, Jinlong Dong and Zengqiang Duan

the optimal reaction conditions for hydrolysis of sucrose by invertase; 2) to identify the soluble sugars in root exudates by HPLC; and 3) to investigate the amounts and components of soluble sugar in cucumber root exudates under different CO 2

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Sea Yeat Choon and Phebe Ding

this study was to determine the physical and physiological characteristics, and soluble sugar content of the torch ginger inflorescence at different developmental stages. By having better understanding on the developmental changes of the inflorescence

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Takashi Nishizawa, Sayuri Nagasawa, Yuko Mori, Yuko Kondo, Yuka Sasaki, Jorge B. Retamales and Arturo Lavin