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Katsumi Ohyama, Junichi Yamaguchi, and Ayumi Enjoji

production was ≈5000 plants/d. Materials and methods Plant production system with sole-source lighting. A research facility (floor area ≈1300 m 2 ) at Osaka Prefecture University was used as a model system for plant production with sole-source lighting ( Fig

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Claudia Elkins and Marc W. van Iersel

Production of young plants, such as seedlings and cuttings, under sole-source lighting is an alternative to greenhouse production where the natural daily light integral (DLI) in winter may be too low for the production of high-quality young plants

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Elisa Solis-Toapanta and Celina Gómez

compared growth and quality responses of edible plants grown with sole-source lighting under different DLIs ( Beaman et al., 2009 ; Dou et al., 2017 , 2018 ; Ferreira Fernandes et al., 2013 ; He et al., 2001 ; Walters and Currey, 2018 ), most research

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Joshua K. Craver, Krishna S. Nemali, and Roberto G. Lopez

With the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and advancements in environmental control technologies, indoor production using sole-source lighting (SSL) is a potential alternative to traditional greenhouse production for many high

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Celina Gómez, Christopher J. Currey, Ryan W. Dickson, Hye-Ji Kim, Ricardo Hernández, Nadia C. Sabeh, Rosa E. Raudales, Robin G. Brumfield, Angela Laury-Shaw, Adam K. Wilke, Roberto G. Lopez, and Stephanie E. Burnett

485 492 Mitchell, C.A. Stutte, G.W. 2015 Sole-source lighting for controlled-environment agriculture. NASA Technical Reports. 5 Aug. 2018. < > Mitchell, C.A. Burr, J.F. Dzakovich, M

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Cary A. Mitchell

farming, or vertical farming applications. The latter typically are interested in LEDs for sole-source lighting of quick-turning greens that do not require high light levels for production. Many entrepreneurs are thinking about LED applications for

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Qingwu Meng, Jennifer Boldt, and Erik S. Runkle

quality. Therefore, we compared lettuce growth and quality in a growth room under sole-source lighting and in a greenhouse environment under sunlight with supplemental lighting. For ‘Rouxai’ red leaf lettuce, we postulated that 1) increasing the B PFD

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Gioia D. Massa, Hyeon-Hye Kim, Raymond M. Wheeler, and Cary A. Mitchell

and longer stems than plants grown under blue LEDs only. Goins et al. (1997) used LEDs as sole-source lighting for chamber-grown wheat and compared red LEDs alone, red with 1% BF, and red with 10% BF with daylight fluorescent lamps. Plants were grown

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Joshua K. Craver, Jennifer K. Boldt, and Roberto G. Lopez

., 2017 ). One alternative to traditional greenhouse production is multilayer or vertical production indoors in repurposed shipping containers, warehouses, or chambers under sole-source lighting (SSL) provided by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). While SSL

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Arend-Jan Both, Bruce Bugbee, Chieri Kubota, Roberto G. Lopez, Cary Mitchell, Erik S. Runkle, and Claude Wallace

Electric lamps are widely used to supplement sunlight (supplemental lighting) and daylength extension (photoperiodic lighting) for the production of horticultural crops in greenhouses and controlled environments. Recent advances in light-emitting diode (LED) technology now provide the horticultural industry with multiple lighting options. However, growers are unable to compare technologies and LED options because of insufficient data on lamp performance metrics. Here, we propose a standardized product label that facilitates the comparison of lamps across manufacturers. This label includes the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) efficacy, PAR conversion efficiency, photon flux density output in key wave bands, as well as the phytochrome photostationary state (PSS), red/far red ratio, and graphs of the normalized photon flux density across the 300–900 nm wave band and a horizontal distribution of the light output.