Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a greenhouse and either inoculated or not with propagules of P. cinnamomi. Two experiments were conducted, including one with 10 commercially established cultivars and another with seven newly released cultivars, three commercially established cultivars, and three advanced selections of highbush blueberry. Pathogen resistance was based on the shoot and root dry biomass of the inoculated plants relative to the noninoculated plants within each genotype, as well as on the percentage of root infection among the genotypes. Resistant genotypes included four commercially established cultivars, Aurora, Legacy, Liberty, and Reka, and two new cultivars, Overtime and Clockwork. When these genotypes were inoculated, average relative shoot biomass was ≥60% of that of the noninoculated plants, whereas relative root biomass was ≥40%. ‘Star’, as well as two advanced selections (an early- and a late-season type) may also have some degree of resistance, but further investigation is needed. Relative shoot biomass of the susceptible genotypes, on the other hand, ranged from 19% to 53% and relative root biomass ranged from 11% to 26%. The susceptible genotypes included ‘Bluetta’, ‘Bluecrop’, ‘Bluegold’, ‘Blue Ribbon’, ‘Cargo’, ‘Draper’, ‘Duke’, ‘Elliott’, ‘Last Call’, ‘Top Shelf’, and ‘Ventura’. These cultivars are not recommended at sites with conditions conducive to root rot, such as those with clay soils and/or poor drainage.
John R. Yeo, Jerry E. Weiland, Dan M. Sullivan, and David R. Bryla
Stephanie G. Harvey, Heather N. Hannahan, and Carl E. Sams
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is the predominant isothiocyanate produced by damaged tissues of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L) Czerniak). This study investigated Indian mustard and AITC mediated suppression of mycelial growth and sclerotial germination of Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo, a common soilborne pathogen. Indian mustard (IM) treatments of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0, 2.0, 4.1, 5.1, 10.2, 20.4, 40.8, 81.6, and 163.3 g·L-1 (weight of reconstituted mustard per liter of air) were evaluated for suppression of mycelial growth. Treatment effect was evaluated by measuring the radial growth of mycelia. Sclerotia were placed in culture tubes containing 18 g autoclaved soil and covered with an additional 5 g soil. AITC at concentrations of 0, 4.0, 16.0, 64.0, 256.0, 1024.0, or 4096.0 μmol·L-1 was injected into the tubes. Treated sclerotia were removed from tubes and plated on potato dextrose agar to determine viability. Mycelial growth was inhibited with IM treatments (P < 0.01). Inhibiting concentrations (IC) of IM for mycelial growth inhibition of 50% and 90% were 0.7 and 1.0 g·L-1, respectively, with death resulting with >2 g·L-1. Inhibition attributable to AITC alone was lower than that achieved by IM producing equivalent amounts of AITC. Germination of sclerotia was negatively correlated with AITC concentration (r = 0.96; P < 0.01). The IC50 and IC90, of AITC were 249.0 and 528.8 μmol·L-1, respectively, at 42 hours. The lethal concentration for sclerotia was not reached; only suppression occurred at the highest treatment concentrations. Sclerotium rolfsii mycelia were sensitive to the IM volatiles and were suppressed at low concentrations. Sclerotia were more resistant than the mycelia and required higher concentrations of AITC to suppress germination.
Richard L. Fery and Judy A. Thies
Husein A. Ajwa and Thomas Trout
The authors thank Steve Fennimore for weed control evaluation and Frank Martin, John Duniway, and Krishna Subbarao for their help with soilborne pathogen evaluation. Thanks to Frank Westerlund and Christopher Winterbottom, California
David H Suchoff, Frank J. Louws, and Christopher C. Gunter
United States, which has a total value of $699 million. Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 is an economically devastating soilborne pathogen that affects tomato throughout the southeastern United States ( Ji et al., 2007 ; McAvoy et al., 2012 ). Soil
Thomas R. Gordon, Douglas V. Shaw, and Kirk D. Larson
Previous studies have demonstrated significant genetic variation for susceptibility to verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, among strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) genotypes adapted to California growing conditions. These evaluations have been conducted using a conidial root-dip inoculation procedure; valid application of this method in a breeding program assumes the reaction of inoculated plants will be predictive of their response to infection by more natural means. To test this expectation, we evaluated the responses of plants representing eight strawberry genotypes that were either root-dip inoculated prior to being transplanted into a fruit production field or were transplanted into soil artificially infested with pathogen propagules (microsclerotia). Both inoculation methods revealed significant variation among genotypes in all 3 years that tests were conducted and the absence of significant genotype × treatment interactions demonstrate similar rankings of genotypes with both methods. However, based on statistical repeatability, the root-dip inoculation method was more consistent over time (R = 0.759) than the soil inoculation method (R = 0.510).
Philip D. Dukes Sr., Richard L. Fery, and Judy A. Thies
Richard L. Fery and Judy A. Thies
Greenhouse tests were conducted to compare the levels of resistance to the southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] exhibited by recently released Capsicum chinense Jacq. Scotch Bonnet-type germplasm lines PA-353, PA-398, and PA-426 to the levels of resistance exhibited by C. annuum L. `Carolina Cayenne' and `Mississippi Nemaheart'; to determine the inheritance of the resistance in C. chinense germplasm line PA-426; and to determine the genetic relationship between the resistances exhibited by C. chinense germplasm line PA-426 and C. annuum `Carolina Cayenne'. The results of a replicated test indicated that the level of resistances exhibited by the resistant released C. chinense germplasm lines is equal to the level of resistances exhibited by the resistant C. annuum cultivars. Evaluation of parental, F1, F2, and backcross populations of the cross PA-426 × PA-350 (a susceptible Habanero-type C. chinense cultigen) indicated that the resistance in C. chinense is conditioned by a single dominant gene. The results of an allelism test indicated that this dominant gene is allelic to the dominant gene that conditions much of the southern root-knot nematode resistance in the C. annuum `Carolina Cayenne'. The ease and reliability of evaluating plants for resistance to root-knot nematode and the availability of a simply inherited source of outstanding resistance makes breeding for southern root-knot nematode resistance a viable objective in C. chinense breeding programs.
R.G. Linderman and E.A. Davis
infected aboveground tissue), thus underscoring the threat that the pathogen could infest media and remain undetected while being disseminated geographically. Growth media potentially infested with this or other soilborne pathogens, along with contaminated
Judy A. Thies and Richard L. Fery
Two isogenic sets of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) lines (differing at the N root-knot nematode resistance locus) were characterized for resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood races 1 and 2, M. hapla Chitwood, and M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood in greenhouse and growth chamber tests. The isogenic sets of C. annuum were `Charleston Belle' (NN) and `Keystone Resistant Giant' (nn-recurrent parent), and `Carolina Wonder' (NN) and `Yolo Wonder B' (nn-recurrent parent). Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 is pathogenic to C. annuum. `Charleston Belle' and `Carolina Wonder' exhibited high resistance to M. arenaria race 1. Their respective recurrent backcross parents, `Keystone Resistant Giant' and `Yolo Wonder B', were susceptible to M. arenaria. Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. javanica are not highly pathogenic to pepper. However, `Charleston Belle' and `Carolina Wonder' both exhibited higher (P≤0.05) resistance to M. arenaria race 2 and M. javanica than `Keystone Resistant Giant' and `Yolo Wonder B'. Meloidogyne hapla is pathogenic to pepper. Both `Charleston Belle' and `Carolina Wonder' and their respective recurrent parents, `Keystone Resistant Giant' and `Yolo Wonder B', were susceptible to M. hapla. We concluded that the N gene confers resistance to M. arenaria races 1 and 2, and M. javanica in C. annuum, but the N gene does not condition resistance to M. hapla.