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James L. Walworth, Scott A. White, Mary J. Comeau, and Richard J. Heerema

; Wadsworth, 1970 ). For these reasons, there is considerable interest among pecan producers in the potential of soil-applied Zn. Soil application of Zn has been successful in the acidic soils of the southeastern United States ( Sparks, 1976 ; Wood, 2007

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Justin M. Vitullo and Clifford S. Sadof

control ( Table 1 ). These treatments compared the effectiveness of soil-applied imidacloprid [1.43 g/plant a.i. (Merit 2.5G; Bayer, Trafalgar, Ind.)], soil and foliar-applied azadirachtin [0.144 g/plant a.i. (soil) and 0.072 g·L −1 a.i. (foliar) (Azatrol

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Rizwan Maqbool, David Percival, Qamar Zaman, Tess Astatkie, Sina Adl, and Deborah Buszard

Ismail 1981 ), or no effect ( Benoit et al., 1984 ; Blatt, 1993 ). Variable responses in soil-applied P and K have also been reported. P can either significantly increase berry yield ( Smagula and Dunham, 1995 ) or have no effect on yield potential as

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M. Lenny Wells and Eric P. Prostko

application. Trees from the 2009 study were scheduled to be removed in the winter of 2009–10, thus, subsequent data could not be obtained. Table 2. Influence of soil-applied imazapic on pecan kernel development in 2008 and 2009. One explanation as to the

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J. Pablo Morales-Payan and William M. Stall

Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of rate combinations of nitrogen (N) and a soil-applied biostimulant based on seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) extract (SSE) on the growth of papaya seedlings for transplant production. Seedlings were grown in 180-mL Styrofoam containers filled with a sphagnum/vermiculite/perlite growing medium. N (0 to 2 g per plant) and SSE (drench, 0 to 1 mL per plant) were applied at sowing and 15 days after emergence. N and SSE rates affected overall growth as well as time to attain adequate size for transplanting. In general, increasing N rates resulted in increased growth, and adding SSE enhanced N effects. In terms of increasing overall transplant growth and decreasing the time required from emergence to adequate transplanting size, the best results were found at the highest N and SSE rates.

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David Percival, Gloria Thyssen, Kevin Sanderson, and David Burton

Environmental losses of soil-applied nitrogen fertilizers were examined during 2004 in commercial wild blueberry fields in the vegetative phase of production in Nova Scotia (NS) and Prince Edward Island (PE). A randomized complete-block experimental design with five treatments, five replications, a plot size of 8 × 6 m, and 2-m buffers between plots was used. Treatments consisted of a control (no fertilizer application) and nitrogen applications (N at 35 kg·ha-1) of ammonium sulphate (AS), urea (U), diammonium phosphate (DAP), and sulfur-coated urea (SCU). Nitrogen applications occurred on 19 May and 9 June at the Kemptown (NS) and Mount Vernon (PE) sites, respectively. Cumulative ammonia volatilization was determined through the use of open top chambers with volatilization samples collected on 1, 2, 5, 8, and 12 days after treatment application. In addition, leaf tissue and yield component data were collected. A significant volatilization treatment effect was present at the Kemptown site with the U and SCU treatments having volatilization rates that were 321% and 207% greater than the control, respectively. Therefore, results from this study indicate that volatilization losses are significant and site specific and can negatively influence blueberry growth.

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Carol J. Lovatt

To protect groundwater from potential nitrate pollution, `Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) growers in California divide the total annual soil-applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer (N at 56 to 168 kg·ha-1) into small applications made during the period from late January to early November. However, no research had been conducted to test the efficacy of this fertilization practice, and there was concern that the amount of N in the individual applications may be too little to meet the demand of the tree at some stages of its phenology. The research presented herein addressed the question of whether yield of `Hass' avocado could be increased by doubling the amount of N currently applied during specific stages of tree phenology. The control in this experiment was the practice of annually applying N as NH4NO3 at 168 kg·ha-1 (168 trees/ha) in six small doses of N at 28 kg·ha-1 in January, February, April, June, July, and November. From these six application times, five were selected on the basis of tree phenology and additional N as NH4NO3 at 28 kg·ha-1 was applied at each time for total annual N of 196 kg·ha-1. Two phenological stages were identified for which N application at 56 kg·ha-1 in a single application (double dose of N) significantly increased the 4-year cumulative yield (kilograms fruit per tree) 30% and 39%, respectively, compared to control trees (P ≤ 0.01). In each case, more than 70% of the net increase in yield was commercially valuable large size fruit (178 to 325 g/fruit). The two phenological stages were when shoot apical buds have four or more secondary axis inflorescence meristems present (mid-November); and during anthesis to early fruit set and initiation of the vegetative shoot flush at the apex of indeterminate floral shoots (about mid-April). When the double dose of N was applied at either of these two stages, the kilograms and number of large size fruit averaged across the 4 years of the study was significantly greater than the control trees (P ≤ 0.01). Averaged across the 4 years of the study, only the November treatment increased yield compared to the control trees (P ≤ 0.05). Application of the double dose of N at flower initiation (January), during early-stage gynoecium development (February), or during June drop had no significant effect on average or cumulative yield or fruit size compared to control trees. Application of the double dose of N in April significantly reduced the severity of alternate bearing (P ≤ 0.05). Yield was not significantly correlated with leaf N concentration. Time and rate of N application are factors that can be optimized to increase yield, fruit size, and annual cropping of `Hass' avocado. When the amounts of N applied were equal (196 kg·ha-1), time of application was the more important factor.

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Osamu Kawabata and Joseph DeFrank

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Sulfate, as K2SO4, was applied to silt loam (Leadvale) soils of pH of 5.0 and 7.1 at rates of 0, 6, 18 and 36 kg S/ha. Nitrogen, as NH4NO3, was split applied at 0 and 120 kg/ha. All treatments received 55 and 45 kg/ha of P and K, respectively. Twenty day-old plants of accession RRC 241 were transplanted on 12 July 1990 and harvested 47 days later. Supplemental SO. had no effect on plant ht or yield but increased soil solution SO4 levels at the end of the season. Leaf blade N and S levels were increased at the highest SO4 rate. Higher SO4 rates increased leaf blade chlorophyll (chloro) `a', total chloro and total carotenoid levels. Response of leaf blade total sulfur, sulfate and organic sulfur to supplemental SO4 was linear. Organic to inorganic S ratios were unchanged. Plants grown at pH 5 had lower yields but higher leaf blade K, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu levels. Plants grown at pH 7 had higher leaf blade P, Ca, Na, and chloro levels. Soil pH did not effect soil solution SO4 levels. N reduced soil pH, and leaf blade P, Ca, Mg, Zn but increased soil electrolytes, leaf blade N, Na, Mn, chloro `a' and `b', and total carotenoids. Leaf blade N was the only leaf consituent from plants grown at both pHs correlated with leaf blade pigments.

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Dean Martens, Tim Hartz, and William Frankenberger Jr.

Exogenous application of auxins to plants has been reported to increase flowering, fruit set and decrease fruit abcission. This laboratory and field study determined that two auxins, identified by HPLC analysis with a long soil residence time and a high conversion to indole-3-acetic acid, synchronized and increased harvest of melons. The two watermelon varieties, `Tiffany' (seedless) and `Picnic' (seed) were treated with auxin and tryptophan (TRP) concentrations ranging from 10-4 to 10-10 M applied to the root ball one week before transplanting to a Buren soil. Optimum application levels (10-6 to 10-9 M) resulted in 86, 92 and 86% of the total harvested Tiffany melons mature at one date for the auxins and TRP, respectively, compared to <70% for the control plants. Optimum application rates significantly increased harvested weight 4.0 and 5.3 kg (Tiffany) and 10.0 to 10.5 kg (Picnic) plant-1. Soil-application of auxins and TRP significantly increased the number of harvested Tiffany melons, increased both weight and harvested number of Picnic melons and increased the uniformity of the harvested melons in both varieties when compared with control plants. Measurements of early growth, branching and early fruit set were not significantly correlated with harvest weight or number of harvested melons but auxin and TRP application stimulated flowering in both melons by 7-10 days.