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T.K. Hartz

Overcoming environmental stresses during seedling establishment is crucial to successful vegetable production. In the irrigated production areas of the southwestern United States, stress most often is related to unfavorable temperature, soil or water salinity, or poor soil structure; it is frequently difficult to separate the effects of these stresses because they may all be present to some significant degree. Growers use a variety of techniques to ameliorate these conditions. Advances in seed technology have improved seedling establishment under unfavorable temperatures, particularly for lettuce. The use of sprinkler irrigation for stand establishment has become a widespread practice; sprinkling moderates soil temperature, minimizes salinity in the zone of germination, and reduces soil crusting. By modifying bed configuration, growers have been able to increase soil temperature to stimulate germination. Modifying seed placement and furrow irrigation patterns can create zones of lower salinity. Various chemical and physical treatments have proven effective in reducing soil crusting. The use of transplants-has expanded for many crops, both as a means to circumvent seedling establishment problems, as well as a technique to obtain earliness.

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Monica Ozores-Hampton

., 2011 ). Raw manures supply macro- and micronutrients, and SOM. Increasing SOM improves soil structure or tilth, increases the water-holding capacity, improves drainage, provides a source of slow-release nutrients, reduces wind and water erosion, and

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Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Domingos Sarvio Magalhães Valente, Isabela da Silva Ribeiro, and Paulo Eduardo Teodoro

roots homogeneously exploit the soil under ideal conditions for root development, and the soil volume is relatively greater than in soils with compaction problems ( Valadão et al., 2015 ). Some compaction states cause changes in soil structure, resulting

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Cary L. Rivard and Frank J. Louws

Profitable heirloom tomato production is a major challenge in the southeast as a result of weathered soil structure, abiotic stress, and diseases caused by foliar and soilborne plant pathogens. Diseases caused by pathogens such as Fusarium

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Haley Rylander, Anusuya Rangarajan, Ryan M. Maher, Mark G. Hutton, Nicholas W. Rowley, Margaret T. McGrath, and Zachary F. Sexton

temperature, water and nitrate dynamics: Experimental results and a modeling study Agr. Water Mgt. 176 100 110 Franzluebbers, A.J. 2002 Water infiltration and soil structure related to organic matter and its stratification with depth Soil Tillage Res. 66 197

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Ricky D. Kemery and Michael N. Dana

Fir seedling transplant containers were used as an alternative to conventional plug containers (72 per tray) in a system to grow seedlings of native prairie perennials and install them on a highway site in central Indiana. Plants grown in deep-tube fir-seedling containers exhibited greater fresh and dry weights than conventional plug transplants with no root circling. Results from survival data indicate that plants grown in fir seedling containers offer better chances of success on highway sites with low soil fertility and poor soil structure. A chronology of installation methods, tools, and mechanization possibilities is presented.

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T.K. Hartz

Overcoming environmental stresses during seedling establishment is crucial to successful vegetable production. In the irrigated production areas of the southwestern United States, stress most often is related to unfavorable temperature, soil or water salinity, or poor soil structure; it is frequently difficult to separate the effects of these stresses, since they may all be present to some significant degree. Growers use a variety of techniques to ameliorate these conditions. The use of sprinkler irrigation for stand establishment has become a widespread practice; sprinkling moderates soil temperature, minimizes salinity in the zone of germination, and reduces soil crusting. By modifying bed configuration, growers have been able to increase soil temperature to stimulate germination. Various chemical and physical treatments have proven effective in reducing soil crusting. The use of transplants has expanded for many crops, both as a means to circumvent seedling establishment problems and as a technique to obtain earliness.

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C. A. Sanchez

Approximately 33% of all irrigated lands worldwide are affected by varying degrees of salinity and sodicity. Soils with an electrical conductivity (EC) of, the saturated extract greater than 4 dS/m are considered saline, but some horticultural crops are negatively impacted if salt concentrations in the rooting zone exceed 2 dS/m. Salinity effects on plant growth are generally considered osmotic in nature, but specific ion toxicities and nutritional imbalances are also known to occur. In addition to direct toxic affects from Na salts, Na can negatively impact soil structure. Soils with exchangeable sodium percentages (ESPs) or saturated extract sodium absorption ratios (SARs) exceeding 15 are considered sodic. Sodic soils tend to deflocculate, become impermeable to water and air, and have a strong tendency to puddle. Some soils are both saline and sodic. This workshop presentation will summarize various considerations in the management of saline and sodic soils for the production of horticultural crops.

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T.K. Hartz

Overcoming environmental stresses during seedling establishment is crucial to successful vegetable production. In the irrigated production areas of the West stress is most often related to unfavorable temperature, soil or water salinity, or poor soil structure; it is frequently difficult to separate the effects of these stresses since they may all be present to some significant degree. Growers use a variety of techniques to ameliorate these conditions. Advances in seed priming and coating have improved seedling establishment under unfavorable temperatures, particularly for lettuce. The use of sprinkler irrigation for stand establishment has become a widespread practice; sprinkling moderates soil temperature, minimizes salinity in the zone of germination, and reduces soil crusting. By modifying bed configuration growers have been able to increase soil temperature to stimulate germination. Modifying furrow irrigation patterns can create zones of lower salinity. Various chemical treatments have proven effective in reducing soil crusting. The use of transplants is expanding for many crops, both as a means to circumvent seedling establishment problems as well as a technique to obtain earliness.

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Jae H. Han, George L. Good*, and Harold M. Van Es

Field experiments were conducted in 1998 and 1999 to determine the effect of soil-incorporated, composted municipal biosolids on the growth and nutrient content of 30.8 cm-38.5 cm Rhododendron × `PJM' grown as containerized plants. Biosolid compost produced in Endicott, N.Y., was incorporated in May 1998 and 1999 at rates of 0, 9.8 Mg/ha and 19.7 megag/ha to a depth of 23 cm. Each treatment was replicated six times in a randomized block design. Plants were planted 10 June 1998 and 8 June 1999. Plants were harvested 10 June, 19 Aug., and 22 Oct. 1998 and 8 June and 22 Sept.1999 after which they were dried, weighed, and analyzed. During 1998, there was little difference in dry weight or nutrient content in plants harvested at the August harvest date, however, dry weight and most nutrient levels increased with increasing rates of compost application in plants harvested at the October harvest date. In 1999, no statistical differences were noted at the September harvest date in plant dry weight or nutrient content. In 1999, measured soil physical properties (water retention, bulk density, water content, and soil strength) did not differ significantly between treatments. Excellent soil structure and drainage, relatively low rates of compost application and a severe drought may have contributed to the lack of any conclusive results noted in 1999 though some positive plant responses to the treatments were evident in 1998.