the effects of various tree-based mulches on soil properties and plant growth. Soil moisture content, soil nutrients, weed suppression, rate of mulch decomposition, and growth and survival of planted trees, annuals and perennials were determined
Adam O. Maggard, Rodney E. Will, Thomas C. Hennessey, Craig R. McKinley, and Janet C. Cole
Chenping Xu and Beiquan Mou
to assess the short-term effects of vermicompost as soil amendments or leachate on soil properties, and spinach growth, physiology, and nutritional value. Materials and Methods Plant materials and treatments. Two trials, each with four replications
Hao Kai Yan, ShaoYing Ma, Xu Lu, Cong Cong Zhang, Lei Ma, Kang Li, Yun Chun Wei, Mei Shuang Gong, and Sheng Li
, and Jiayuguan, each of which has different climatic conditions and soil properties. Because of the limited number of studies conducted to date, our understanding of the effects of soil and climate-related factors on grape quality in the Hexi Corridor
W.G. Harris, M. Chrysostome, T.A. Obreza, and V.D. Nair
production while minimizing environmental impacts requires an understanding of how soil properties affect the fate of water and nutrients ( Muchovej et al., 2005 ; Simonne and Hochmuth, 2007 ; Stamps, 1996 ; Thompson et al., 2007 ). Soils strongly
Alex J. Lindsey, Adam W. Thoms, Nick E. Christians, and Ben W. Pease
. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the soil properties and playability of a sand-based putting green subjected to traditional hollow-tine aerification and hollow-tine aerification core recycling. Materials and methods
Bryant C. Scharenbroch
experiment was conducted to determine the impacts on tree and soil properties of varying rates of ACT. Treatment effects were examined for two tree species ( Acer saccharum and Quercus macrocarpa ) and three soil types (sand, uncompacted loam, and compacted
Mahendra S. Bhangoo, Kenneth S. Day, Venkateswara R. Sudanagunta, and Vincent E. Petrucci
Raw and composted poultry manure application rates of 0, 4.5, and 9.0 t·ha–1 in a ‘Thompson Seedless’ grape (Vitis vinifera S.) vineyard on a Ramona sandy loam (Typic Haploxeralfs) were studied for 3 years (1984–1986). Manure was side-dressed on both sides of vine rows and incorporated in the top 0.1 m of soil in November each year. Petioles of the recently matured leaves at bloom, veraison, and maturity were taken (1985–1986) for NO3-N, P, and K determination. Soil samples to 0.3 m depth were taken in 1986 to evaluate soil properties. Fruit yield and quality increased over the control with manure applications. The response to the 4.5 and 9.0 t·ha–1 rates was similar. In 1985 and 1986 berry yield increased 26% and 61%, respectively, over the control. Berry size (1986), cluster numbers per vine (1985–1986), and cluster weight (1986) increased with applied manure. Raisin quality in 1986 improved linearly (r = 0.93) with manure rates. Petiole NO3-N (1984–1986), P, and K contents (1986) increased with applied manure over the control. Soil pH decreased with the 9.0 t·ha–1 rate. Soil available P, exchangeable K, NO3-N, and organic matter content and water infiltration rate increased with manure application. Manure at 4.5 t·ha–1 was as effective as 9.0 t·ha–1 in increasing fruit yield and quality. Manure type was not a significant factor.
Mohamed Badrane Erhioui, A. Karam, and S. Yelle
The large amount of organic carbon content present in de-inking residues makes them attractive for use in agricultural soils as an organic soil amendment. Greenhouse bioessays were undertaken to evaluate the agronomic value of de-inking sludge (DS). It was incorporated in a sandy soil to study the effects of different rates of de-inking residue amendments and N fertilizer combinations on soil properties and growth of corn. Particular attention was given to trace element concentrations. In a split factorial design, three variables were investigated: harvest time (after 20, 40, and 60 days), application rates of DS (0, 35, 70, and 105 t·ha–1), and four N rates (0, 140, 280, and 420 kg·ha–1). Chemical analyses of the fresh residues did not indicate the presence of heavy metals at levels potentially toxic to the environment. Soil chemical properties were clearly improved following the incorporation of DS. For example, adding different amounts of DS had a significant impact on the pH, the cation exchange capacity, and soil moisture. In addition, salinity was not affected with DS application. Seed germination was high in all the treatments and was not significantly influenced by DS application. Moreover, results on vegetative growth indicated a good relationship between the C:N ratio and biomass production. The DS combined with supplemental fertilizer seems to have a positive effect on plant growth. Overall, these results suggest that the limiting factor in de-inking paper sludge valorization is the amount of N available to the plant. Also, no other toxic products were found that could be harmful to the environment.
Woo Soo Kim, Hee Jung Kim, and Seong Bong Kim
The energized water, Bio-Green Water (B.G. Water) was manufactured through a series of processes: water purification → adding catalysts → exposure with special energy spectra → filtering, by Kyungwon Enterprise Co. B.G. Water was treated with irrigation of 4 liters/tree at 30 Apr. 1994 and 8 liters/tree at 20 June 1994 in the `Fuji' apple orchard soil, and a pasting to the trunk of apple trees at 20 Apr. 1994. In terms of orchard soil property, Ca and Mg contents were outstandingly increased; however, P2O5 was decreased and K2O was not influenced by irrigation of B.G. Water. The B.G. Water treatment changed soil pH from 4.71 to 5.81 of surface soil level (0 to 20 cm) and from 4.82 to 6.45 of deeper soil level (30 to 50 cm). B.G. Water treatment showed higher soluble solids in apple fruit juice, and lower flesh browning after peeling than that of control. Of mineral contents in fruit skin, Ca was increased; however, N was decreased by the B.G. Water treatment. Of the four solvents fraction for Ca extraction, water-soluble Ca content was increased in the fruit skin treated with B.G. Water, whereas the contents of N, P, Ca, Zn, and B were decreased in the leaves and stem bark of apple trees treated with B.G. Water.
Hyun-Sug Choi, Curt R. Rom, Mengmeng Gu, and Jason McAfee
Seasonal variations of nutrient concentrations in soil and apple leaves, soil properties, weed density, and tree performance were observed for response to four groundcover managements systems: 1) mowed control; 2) plastic woven landscape fabric; 3) wood chip mulch; and 4) shredded commercial paper mulch. Soil sampled below the wood chip and shredded paper mulch treatments had higher NO3-N concentrations during the season. Soil below the shredded paper mulch had greater soil Ca, Na, and Zn than other treatments. Soil sampled below wood chip mulch had higher Mg and B. Leaf K was greater for trees grown with bark chip mulch than the other treatments. Overall, the seasonal patterns of N, P, and K decreased and had similar patterns as previously reported conventionally grown orchards. The leaf Ca and Mg increased during the season for all treatments. The concentration of other microelements had patterns similar among all treatments. Seasonal soil pH decreased during the season and was affected by treatments. During the season, water infiltration was faster into the soil covered with shredded paper mulch. The organic matter was greater in soil under the wood chip mulch at the 15-cm soil depth. Very little weed invasion occurred in the landscape fabric through August. Trees grown with shredded paper and wood chip mulch treatments had greater trunk cross-sectional area compared to trees grown under landscape fabric after 5 years; however, the latter treatment resulted in greater tree height, tree canopy spread, and fruit yield.