evaluated using linear regression ( Systat Software, Inc., 2006 ). Phosphorus soil test calibration was attempted by relating tree size, fruit yield, leaf tissue P concentration, and fruit quality variables measured from each plot in a given year to soil
Thomas A. Obreza, Robert E. Rouse and Kelly T. Morgan
Stephanie C. Hamel and Joseph R. Heckman
Recent changes in soil testing methodology, the important role of P fertilization in early establishment and soil coverage, and new restrictions on P applications to turf suggest a need for soil test calibration research on Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Greenhouse and field studies were conducted for 42 days to examine the relationship between soil test P levels and P needs for rapid grass establishment using 23 NJ soils with a Mehlich-3 extractable P ranging from 6 to 1238 mg·kg–1. Soil tests (Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, and Bray-1) for extractable P were performed by inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP). Mehlich-3 extractable P and Al were measured to evaluate the ratio of P to Al as a predictor of need for P fertilizer. Kentucky bluegrass establishment was more sensitive to low soil P availability than tall fescue or perennial ryegrass. Soil test extractants Mehlich-1, Bray-1, or Mehlich-3 were each effective predictors of need for P fertilization. The ratio of P to Al (Mehlich-3 P/Al %) was a better predictor of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass establishment response to P fertilization than soil test P alone. The Mehlich-1, Bray-1, and Mehlich-3 soil test P critical levels for clipping yield response were in the range of 170 to 280 mg·kg–1, depending on the soil test extractant, for tall fescue and perennial ryegrass. The Mehlich-3 P/Al (%) critical level was 42% for tall fescue and 33% for perennial ryegrass. Soil test critical levels, based on estimates from clipping yield data, could not be determined for Kentucky bluegrass using the soils in this study. Soil testing for P has the potential to aid in protection of water quality by helping to identify sites where P fertilization can accelerate grass establishment and thereby prevent soil erosion, and by identifying sites that do not need P fertilization, thereby preventing further P enrichment of soil and runoff. Because different grass species have varying critical P levels for establishment, both soil test P and the species should be incorporated into the decision-making process regarding P fertilization.
N.M. El-Hout and C.A. Sanchez
The production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) types other than crisphead (i.e., leaf, boston, bibb, and romaine) has recently increased due to expanding consumer demand. Fertilizer P recommendations for these lettuce types are largely based on soil-test calibrations for the crisphead type only. However, biomass production and morphological traits of the different lettuce types vary. Four field experiments were conducted to compare the relative efficiencies of these lettuce types to P fertilization. All lettuce types showed large yield and quality responses to P. Because environmental conditions affected yield potential, P rates required for optimal yield varied by lettuce type within experiments. However, the P rates required for optimal yield were similar over all experiments. Furthermore, the relationship between relative yield and soil-test P across all seasons showed a similar soil-test P level was required for maximum yield of all lettuce types. The results of this study show that soil-test-based fertilizer recommendations for crisphead lettuce may be adequate for all lettuce types
N.M. El-Hout, C.A. Sanchez and S. Swanson
Potassium is often considered the nutrient element most limiting to crop production on organic soils. On Histosols in southern Florida, K2SO4, rather than KCl, is often used for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production to minimize the risk of salt injury. However, recent soil-test calibration research suggests that current K fertilizer recommendations for lettuce may be too high. Four field studies were conducted from 1989 to 1991 to evaluate the response of five lettuce types to K rate and source. The five lettuce types evaluated were leaf, bibb, boston, romaine (cos), and crisphead. Two sources of fertilizer K (K2SO4 and KCl) were evaluated at rates ranging from 0 to 600 kg K ha-1. Lettuce showed a minimal or no response to K fertilization. Potassium chloride had detrimental effects on lettuce only when applied at rates in excess of those required for optimal production. These studies showed that K fertilizer recommendations for lettuce produced on Histosols in Florida can be reduced. Furthermore, KCl, a more economical source, is suitable when the K is applied at appropriate rates.
L. Espinoza, C.A. Sanchez and T.J. Schueneman
Four field experiments were conducted during two production seasons to evaluate soil-test P fertilizer recommendations for celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) produced on Histosols, which often are linked hydrologically to environmentally sensitive wetlands, and to evaluate band placement as a strategy for improving P fertilizer-use efficiency in celery in such areas. Phosphorus was applied (broadcast or banded) at 0,50, 100,150, and 200 kg P/ha. Broadcast P was surface-applied and disked into the soil ≈ 15 cm deep 1 day before planting. Banded P was applied 5 cm below the soil surface and 5 cm to the side of each celery row. Total above-ground mass, marketable trimmed yield of celery, and yield of the larger grade sizes increased with P rate in all experiments. Band P placement was not a viable strategy for improving P fertilizer-use efficiency for celery. However, our results indicate that previous soil-test-based P fertilizer recommendations for celery were too high for the cultivars grown currently, and improved P fertilizer-use efficiency can be obtained with revised soil-test calibrations.
Alvaro O. Pacheco, G.J. Hochmuth, D.N. Maynard, A.A. Csizinszky and S.A. Sargent
Optimum economic yield is produced when nutrients in the proper amounts are supplied to the crop. Crop nutrient requirements (CNR) of essential elements have been determined for the major vegetables produced in Florida. However, for minor crops, such as muskmelon, little research has been conducted to determine the CNR, especially potassium. In many vegetables, yield has responded to increasing K rates when other elements were not limiting. Our objective was to determine the K fertility requirement for optimum yield of muskmelon and to evaluate the Mehlich-1 soil test calibration for soil testing low in K (<20 mg·kg–1). Experiments were conducted in the spring and fall seasons of 1995. Potassium at five rates (0, 56, 112, 168, and 224 kg·ha–1) was injected weekly, approximating the growth curve of `Galia' and `Mission'. There were significant yield responses to K fertilization for both cultivars during both seasons. During spring, average marketable yield was 14.5, 26.1, 31.9, 31.5, and 36.3 Mg·ha–1 and for fall, average marketable yield was 15.8, 32.9, 37.8, 37.2, and 36.4 Mg·ha–1 for the previously described K treatments, respectively. The cultivar response for both seasons was described by a linear-plateau model. In spring, yield was maximized with K at 116.8 and 76.3 kg·ha–1 for `Galia' and `Mission', respectively. In fall, K at 73.3 and 68.3 kg·ha–1 produced the peak response for the same cultivars. These results indicate that maximum yield of muskmelon in Florida can be obtained at considerably less K than the current recommendation of 140 kg·ha–1.
Qiang Zhu, Yuncong C. Li, Rao S. Mylavarapu, Kelly Morgan and Mingjian Geng
al., 2014b ). In calcareous soils, however, AB-DTPA was adopted and 10 mg·kg ‒1 was proposed to be the critical level for vegetable production without calibrated interpretations ( Li et al., 2000 ). Because no soil-test calibration has been performed
Thomas A. Obreza and Arnold Schumann
with annual field and vegetable crops conducted for many years. Soil test calibration work with Florida citrus trees suggests that the current Florida interpretations are suitable for citrus ( Obreza et al., 2008 ). Citrus leaf analysis is used to
Bohan Liu and Peter J. Landschoot
Soil test calibrations for establishment of turfgrass monostands Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 47 1161 1166 Vetsch, J.A. Randall, G.W. 2000 Enhancing no-tillage systems for corn with starter fertilizers, row cleaners, and nitrogen placement methods Agron. J