-Pérez and Batal, 2002 ; Greer and Dole, 2003 ; Lamont, 1993 ) on soil temperature ( Chakraborty et al., 2008 ; Díaz-Pérez, 2009 , 2010 ; Díaz-Pérez et al., 2005 ; Lamont, 2005 ), moisture ( Chakraborty et al., 2008 ; Greer and Dole, 2003 ; Ramalan
Kayla Snyder, Amanda Grant, Christopher Murray and Bryon Wolff
Theo J. Blom and Brian D. Piott
The effect of constant 16C and noncontrolled soil temperature on flowering of four Alstroemeria cultivars grown in a greenhouse was studied over 3 years. Soil temperature regime did not influence either the start or cessation of flowering. During spring/summer, production was 15% lower under constant soil temperature, irrespective of cultivar. During fall/winter, the effect of constant soil temperature was cultivar-dependent; yield of `Red Sunset' was increased by 150%, while that for `Rio' decreased by 2270 relative to the noncontrolled. Annual production was not affected, but the ratio between the production of spring/summer and fail/winter decreased from 3.1 to 2.2 for noncontrolled and constant soil temperature, respectively.
E.W. Pavel and E. Fereres
Responses to low soil temperatures at winter days of high evaporative demand were studied in 20-year-old (fi eld) and 1-year-old potted (controlled conditions) olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Picual) trees in 1996 and 1997. Low soil temperatures apparently affected tree water status as evidenced by low water potentials and stomatal conductance. Low night (2 and 5°C) but ambient day (above 10°C) temperatures did not affect stomatal conductance (gl), leaf (ψl), and xylem (ψx) water potentials of potted olive trees. Tree ψl and ψx decreased when exposed to low night and day temperatures (8°C), but gl was not affected. Water potential of those trees recovered very rapidly when the soil temperature was raised above 10°C at midday. When the trees were exposed to soil temperatures below 8°C for 3 days, ψl, ψx, and gl immediately decreased. After the first day, gl and ψx started to recover while gl was maintained at low levels, thus allowing for tree rehydration. Root hydraulic resistance (rroot)—a major part of whole plant resistance—increased immediately in response to soil temperatures below 10°C relative to that of control trees. The relationship between ψx and rroot indicated that the root system apparently plays a mayor role in the control of tree water status in response to low soil temperatures. During the winter months, olive tree water uptake seems to be primarily limited by low soil temperatures, even though soil water content is normally adequate due to high seasonal rainfall.
B.R. Gardner and C.A. Sanchez
Lettuce is planted in the southwestern U.S. desert from September through December and harvested from November through April each year. During this period mean soil temperatures range from 7 to 30C. Lettuce produced on desert soils shows a large yield response to P. Soil solution P is replenished by desorption from the labile soil P fraction and this process is temperature sensitive. A field study was conducted over 6 years to evaluate the response of lettuce to soil solution P levels under different ambient soil temperature regimes. The soil temperatures under which lettuce was grown were varied each year by altering planting dates. Soil solution P levels were established and maintained each season using P sorption isotherm methodology. Lettuce responded to P in all experiments. Phosphorus levels required for maximum yield varied with each experiment. Soil P levels required for optimal yield were best correlated to mean soil temperatures during the last 20 days before harvest. Lettuce accumulates over 70% of its P during the heading stage of development and it is likely that during this period of rapid growth and nutrient uptake, solution P becomes limiting when soil temperatures are cool.
Timothy K. Broschat
Royal palms [Roystonea regia (HBK.) O.F. Cook], coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L. `Malayan Dwarf'), queen palms [Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso) Glassman], and pygmy date palms (Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien) were grown in a rhizotron to determine the patterns of root and shoot growth over a 2-year period. Roots and shoots of all four species of palms grew throughout the year, but both root and shoot growth rates were positively correlated with air and soil temperature for all but the pygmy date palms. Growth of primary roots in all four species was finite for these juvenile palms and lasted for only 5 weeks in royal palms, but ≈7 weeks in the other three species. Elongation of secondary roots lasted for only 9 weeks for coconut palms and less than half of that time for the other three species. Primary root growth rate varied from 16 mm·week-1 for coconut and pygmy date palms to 31 mm·week-1 for royal palms, while secondary root growth rates were close to 10 mm·week-1 for all species. About 25% of the total number of primary roots in these palms grew in contact with the rhizotron window, allowing the prediction of the total root number and length from the sample of roots visible in the rhizotron. Results indicated that there is no obvious season when palms should not be transplanted in southern Florida because of root inactivity.
Barbara J. Daniels-Lake, Robert K. Prange, Sonia O. Gaul, Kenneth B. McRae, Roberto de Antueno and David McLachlan
with unusually hot soil temperatures, in the production of TCA-based “musty” OFO in the 2001 crop. This study has identified influences of high soil temperature and pesticides other than γ-CHC on the release of TCA from soil, and the presence of TCA in
Kirk D. Larson
Southern California strawberry growers use clear polyethylene mulch to increase soil warming and promote plant growth and fruiting, but use of clear poly mulch is only feasible when effective preplant soil fumigation controls weeds. In the absence of methyl bromide fumigation, the use of wave-length selective (WLS) or black polyethylene bed mulches may be required for adequate weed suppression, but the influence of these materials on strawberry plant growth and productivity in southern California is not well-documented. We conducted experiments in 1994–95 and 1995–96 to determine the influence of various mulch formulations on soil temperature and growth and productivity of `Chandler' strawberry in Irvine, Calif. Clear poly and a green WLS material (IRT76, AEP Plastics) were compared in both trials; in addition, the 1995–96 trial included a brown WLS material (ALOR, PolyWest, Inc.) and a black poly mulch. For both trials, freshly dug runner plants were established in premulched beds in early October, and soil temperatures were continuously monitored at a 10-cm depth using thermocouples and a recording datalogger. Fruit harvest commenced in December and continued through June. In both years, clear poly mulch resulted in significantly greater soil temperatures, greater December plant diameters, and greater early and total fruit yields than other mulches. In both years, use of clear poly resulted in 12% greater fruit yields than the other three materials. No growth or productivity differences were observed among the WLS and black mulches, although differences were observed in mean soil temperatures.
John R. Teasdale and Aref A. Abdul-Baki
Temperature and root length at selected locations within a raised bed under black polyethylene (BP), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) residue (HV), or bare soil (BS) were measured and correlated with tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth. Early in the season, before the tomato leaf canopy closed, soil temperature was influenced more by vertical depth in the bed than by horizontal location across the bed. Maximum soil temperatures under BP averaged 5.7 and 3.4C greater than those under HV at 5- and 15-cm depths, respectively. More hours at temperatures >20C during the first 4 weeks probably accounted for greater early root and shoot growth and greater early yield of tomatoes grown in BP rater than in HV or BS. After canopy closure, soil temperatures under tomato foliage were reduced compared to those on the outer edge of the beds. Most tomato roots were in areas of the bed covered by the tomato canopy where temperatures in all treatments remained in the optimum 20 to 30C range almost continuously. Soil temperature, therefore, did not explain why total yield was higher in the HV than the BP or BS treatments.
John R. Teasdale and Aref A. Abdul-Baki
Temperature and root length at selected locations within a raised bed under black polyethylene, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) residue, or bare soil were measured and correlated with tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth. Early in the season, before the tomato leaf canopy closed, soil temperature was influenced more by vertical depth in the bed than by horizontal position across the bed. Maximum soil temperatures under black polyethylene averaged 5.7 and 3.4C greater than those under hairy vetch at 5 and 15 cm deep, respectively. More hours at optimum temperatures for root growth (20 to 30C) during the first 4 weeks of the season probably accounted for greater early root and shoot growth and greater early yield of tomatoes grown with black polyethylene than hairy vetch residue or bare soil. After canopy closure, soil temperatures under tomato foliage within the row were reduced by an average of 5.2 and 2.2C at 5 and 15 cm deep, respectively, compared to those on the outer edge of the beds. Most tomato roots were in areas of the bed covered by the tomato canopy where temperatures in all treatments remained in the optimum 20 to 30C range almost continuously. Soil temperature, therefore, did not explain why tomato plants in the hairy vetch treatment had equal or higher total yields than the black polyethylene or unmulched treatments.
Joan R. Davenport and Carolyn DeMoranville
Soluble nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) is released when soil organic matter is mineralized. The amount of N released by this process depends on the amount of organic matter present and soil temperature. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) grows in acidic soils with a wide range in organic matter content. To evaluate how soil N release is affected by soil temperature, intact soil cores were collected from sites that had received no fertilizer and placed in PVC columns. Four different soil types, representing the range of cranberry soils (sand, sanded organic soil, peat, and muck), were used. Each column was incubated sequentially at six different temperatures from 10 to 24 °C (2.8 °C temperature intervals) for 3 weeks at each temperature, with the soils leached twice weekly to determine the amount of N release. The total amount of N in leachate was highest in organic soils, intermediate in the sanded organic soil, and lowest in the sands. The degree of decomposition in the organic soils was important in determining which form of N predominated. In the more highly decomposed organic soil (muck), most of the N was converted to nitrate. The data from this study resulted in the development of two models—one predicting the N mineralization and the other predicting the proportion of N in each of the two forms. Key factors for N release rate were soil temperature, percentage of clay, and organic carbon content. For predicting the proportion of N as ammonium vs. nitrate, key factors were soil temperature, soil pH, and the distribution of mineral matter in the silt and sand fractions.