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Scott Henderson, David Gholami, and Youbin Zheng

. This kind of system initiates irrigation at a user-identified substrate VWC(s) ( Belayneh et al., 2013 ; Chappell et al., 2013 ). Soil moisture sensor-based systems are promising; however, there is not enough information on how many sensors are

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Marc W. van Iersel, and Roberto Testezlaf

set values and thereby minimize water use and reduce nutrient leaching ( Bayer et al., 2013 ; Nemali and van Iersel, 2006 ). Sensor-based automation could also allow growers to have better control over subirrigation. Soil moisture sensors allow real

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Amanda Bayer, Imran Mahbub, Matthew Chappell, John Ruter, and Marc W. van Iersel

more sophisticated soil moisture sensor-based irrigation systems that can irrigate based on plant water use, has the potential to reduce the amount of water needed for irrigation and the amount of runoff produced during and immediately after an

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Julián Miralles-Crespo and Marc W. van Iersel

closing solenoid valves as needed. The limitation of this system is that a basic knowledge of programming and wiring dataloggers is required. However, there are commercially available irrigation systems that not only include soil moisture sensors, but also

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Marc W. Van Iersel, Sue Dove, Jong-Goo Kang, and Stephanie E. Burnett

containers. The sensors were connected to a multiplexer (AM25T; Campbell Scientific, Logan, UT), which in turn was connected to a data logger (CR10; Campbell Scientific), which measured the 32 soil moisture sensors (two sensors in 16 containers) every 20 min

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Alberto Pardossi and Luca Incrocci

original experiments with the major greenhouse crops in Almeria. Soil moisture sensors Soil moisture sensors could be used to regulate the frequency of irrigation and, possibly, the water dose by continuously monitoring θ or ψ m of the growing media

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Taryn L. Bauerle, William L. Bauerle, Marc Goebel, and David M. Barnard

soil moisture sensor variability. We hypothesized that high variability in fine root density will result in high sensor variability. Additionally, we predicted that species with a high proportion of course roots would result in high sensor variability

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Shuyang Zhen and Stephanie E. Burnett

Iersel’s in that we used soil moisture sensors (5TM; Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) that measure both θ and substrate temperature. Plants were grown at one of four θ set points: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 L·L −1 representing a broad range of matric potentials

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Rafael Muñoz-Carpena, Yuncong C. Li, Waldemar Klassen, and Michael D. Dukes

A low-volume/high frequency (LVHF) soil moisture-based drip irrigation system was tested on a shallow sandy soil at a commercial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) farm in southern Florida. Six LVHF irrigation treatments were compared with the standard commercial practice on the farm (control), where a portable pump was used for manual drip irrigation twice each week. In the six LVHF treatments the system was continuously pressurized by means of an electrical pump and a pressure tank, and controlled by an irrigation timer set to irrigate a maximum of five times per day with the irrigation time (i.e., volume) set according to historical evapotranspiration (ET) demands in the area. Two treatments were based on timer schedules, one to supply 100% of the maximum recommended crop water needs in the area based on historical ET (ET-100%), and the other to supply 150% of those needs (ET-150%). The other four treatments were created by interfacing two types of soil moisture sensors (switching tensiometers and granular matrix sensors with control modules) set at two moisture points (wet = 10 kPa, optimal = 15 kPa) in a closed control loop with the irrigation timer programmed at the ET-100% schedule. Results showed that the six LVHF treatments reduced water use while not significantly affecting tomato yields. Switching tensiometers at the 15 kPa set point performed the best (up to 73% reduction in water use when compared to the control, 50% with respect to ET-100%). The results show that water use below historical ET levels can be obtained without sacrificing yield by keeping the root zone moisture at controlled levels with the soil-moisture based system. Routine maintenance was critical for reliable operation of the switching tensiometers. Granular matrix sensor based irrigation behaved erratically, and did not improve water savings compared to ET-100%, indicating that this system was not effective under the conditions of the area due to the sensor's slow response to frequent wetting-rewetting cycles and characteristics of the interface.

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Abby B. Griffin, Amy N. Wright, Kenneth M. Tilt, and D. Joseph Eakes

measuring the rate of drying of the backfill soil and transplanted root ball. Installing soil moisture sensors in both the soil backfill and the transplanted root ball could be used to efficiently schedule and control irrigation, thereby reducing water use