2006 the experimental orchard has been maintained with the same treatments in a split-split plot with two main plot irrigation treatments, two cultivars as subplots, and three soil management treatments as sub-subplots with six replicates. Sub
Gerry H. Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Frank Kappel and T. Forge
S. Miyamoto and J. Benton Storey
Irrigated pecans in the southwestern United States have been planted in every soil imaginable, and tree performance has become highly soil-dependent. Desperate attempts to deal with this poor soil selection has led to advancements in soil management, consisting primarily of physical measures, such as chiseling and trenching. Chemical amendments appear to have played a secondary or supplemental role. Meanwhile, soil structural degradation, mainly compaction and aggregate destruction, began to cause poor water penetration, die-back of deep roots, and resultant loss of tree vigor. These problems have been dealt with primarily by chiseling. In the future, spiking and sodded-floor management are likely to become increasingly important. Scientific examination of soil management practices has lagged, but has provided some rationale and targets for soil management. H should play an increasingly important role in refining these measures and in establishing a comprehensive soil management program in which the soil is viewed as a plant growth medium and an integral component of cost-effective orchard management.
Rachel E. Rudolph, Carl Sams, Robert Steiner, Stephen H. Thomas, Stephanie Walker and Mark E. Uchanski
Chem. 47 1541 1548 Magdoff, F. Van Es, H. 2009 Building soils for better crops: Sustainable soil management. 3 rd Ed. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education, Waldorf, MD Martin, F.N. 2003 Development of alternative strategies for management of
Martin Paré and Deborah Buszard
Four soil management treatments were applied from 1991 to 1993 to `Spartan'/M.9 apple trees planted in 1987. Geotextile, straw mulch, composted manure mulch, and grass sod were used to control weed growth in a 1-m-wide band under the trees. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with two blocks and seven trees per treatment; data was taken from the five inner trees in each plot. Trees in straw mulch showed the largest increase in trunk cross-sectional area (+45.6%) over the three years; those in the geotextile showed the second largest (40.7%). Straw mulch also resulted in the largest yield 2 years out of 3. Fruit set and fruit quality were also assessed, and trees in manure mulch and grass sod set the least fruit in each season. Fruit from the grass sod treatment remained harder in storage, and both straw mulch and grass sod have a higher proportion of grade A fruit (57 of total fruit).
G.H. Neilsen, E.J. Hogue, T. Forge and D. Neilsen
`Spartan' apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) trees on M.9 (T337) rootstock were planted in April 1994 at 1.25 m × 3.5 m spacing. Seven soil management treatments were applied within a 2-m-wide strip centered on the tree row and arranged in a randomized complete-block experimental design. Treatments included a weed-free strip (check) maintained with four annual applications of glyphosate; surface application of 45 t·ha-1 of Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) biosolids applied in 1994 and again in 1997; mulches of shredded office paper; alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay; black woven polypropylene; and shredded paper applied over 45 t·ha-1 GVRD-and Kelowna-biosolids applied in 1994 and 1997. All experimental trees were fertigated with phosphorus (P) in the first year and with nitrogen (N) annually. Cumulative yield for the first five harvests was higher for trees subjected to any soil management treatment relative to check trees. Maximum cumulative yield, exceeding check trees by 80%, was measured for trees grown with a shredded paper mulch with or without biosolids application. Trees from the three shredded paper treatments were the only ones significantly larger than check trees after six growing seasons. No increases in leaf nutrient concentration were consistently as sociated with improved tree performance. Notable effects included increased leaf P concentration associated with biosolids application, increased leaf K concentration after alfalfa mulch application and temporary increases in leaf Zn and Cu concentration associated with application of biosolids high in Zn and Cu. Use of both mulches and biosolids amendments benefits growth of trees in high density plantings despite daily drip irrigation and annual fertigation.
Amaya Atucha, Ian A. Merwin and Michael G. Brown
Bloomington, IN Haynes, R.J. 1980 Influence of soil management practice on the orchard agro-ecosystem Agro-ecosyst. 6 3 32 Haynes, R.J. Goh, K.M. 1980 Some effects of orchard soil management on sward composition, levels of available nutrients in the soil, and
Amaya Atucha, Ian A. Merwin, Chandra K. Purohit and Michael G. Brown
and groundcover or soil management, there have been few long-term studies measuring the impact of GMSs on orchard nutrient budgets. The present study was intended to compare the impacts of GMSs and N or phosphorus (P) fertilization on nutrient
D.M. Glenn and W.V. Welker
We determined how differences in peach tree water use and shoot and root growth due to ground cover treatments are affected by tree response and soil conditions in the adjacent soil environment. Ground cover combinations of bare soil (BS), a killed K-31 tall fescue sod (KS), a living Poa trivialis sod (PT), and a living K-31 tall fescue sod (LS) were imposed on 50% of the soil surface in greenhouse studies. The ground cover on 50% of the soil surface influenced root and top growth of the peach trees [Prunus persica (L) Batsch], water use, and NO3-N levels in the opposing 50%, depending on the competitiveness of the cover crop (LS vs. PT and KS) and characteristics of the soil (BS vs. KS). Tree growth was allometrically related to root growth.
Stuart L. Warren, C. Ray Campbell and Walter A. Skroch
Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] and Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] were grown in seven vegetation management programs ranging from 100% cover of grass-dominated vegetation to bare soil on opposing north and south aspects. Concentrations of 13 nutrients were determined at three growth stages during 2 years: active terminal growth, cessation of terminal expansion, and dormancy. Aspect did not affect nutrient concentrations. Vegetation management programs bad a significant impact on nutrient concentration for both species. Nitrogen, Ca, B, Fe, and Mn concentrations during dormancy were negatively correlated with herbaceous biomass. In contrast, N during active growth and P and Mg concentrations during all stages were positively correlated with herbaceous biomass. Vegetation management only affected the seasonal trend of Mo. Seasonal trends varied by nutrient in both species.
Matthew Kleinhenz, Annette Wszelaki, Sonia Walker, Senay Ozgen and David Francis
Successful organic farming requires synchronizing soil-based processes affecting nutrient supply with crop demand, variable among and within crops. We report here on two studies conducted in transitional- (TO) and certified-organic (CO) systems containing subplots that, annually, were either amended with compost or not amended prior to vegetable crop planting. Dairy-manure compost was added at rates providing the portion of a crop's anticipated nitrogen requirement not provided by a leguminous rotation crop and/or carryover from previous compost application. In the TO study, potato (2003), squash (2004), green bean (2005), and tomato (2006) were planted in main-season plots in open fields and high tunnels, and beet, lettuce, radish, spinach, and swiss chard were planted in high tunnels in early spring and late fall. Long-term CO open-field plots (±compost) were planted to multiple varieties of lettuce, potato, popcorn, and processing tomato in 2004–2006. Drip irrigation was used in all TO plots and CO lettuce and processing tomato plots. Treatment effects on crop physical and biochemical variables, some related to buyer perceptions of crop quality, were emphasized in each study. Yield in TO, compost-amended plots exceeded yield in unamended plots by 1.3 to 4 times, with the greatest increases observed in high-tunnel-grown mesclun lettuce and the smallest response observed in potato. Similar results were found in CO plots, although compost effects differed by crop and variety. The data suggest that: 1) compost application and the use of specific varieties are needed to maximize yield in organic vegetable systems in temperate zones, regardless of age; and 2) production phase management may influence buyer-oriented aspects of crop quality.