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J. Cavero, R. Gil Ortega, and C. Zaragoza

Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. `Piquillo de Lodosa') was seeded and then covered with clear plastic mulch, and various cultural practices to improve seedling emergence were compared. Planting dates (8, 12, and 25 Apr. 1991), seeding systems (raised bed vs. flat, 1991), and one or two rows per bed (1991 and 1992, respectively) were evaluated for their effects on stand establishment and yield. Plant stand was 60% when seed was under plastic mulch, compared to 0% when no mulch was used. Maximum plant stand was obtained 4 weeks after seeding in mulched soil. With plastic mulch, earlier (on or before 12 Apr.) season plantings were best because soil temperatures were so high (≥35C) later as to reduce plant stands. The risk of excessive high temperatures was greater when seeding was on a raised bed rather than flat ground; however, using plastic mulch, temperatures were higher, often resulting in acceptable plant stands regardless of bed arrangement. Higher yields were realized with raised beds compared to flat ground sowing. When two rows per bed were used, higher temperatures on the south side reduced emergence compared to the north side of the east–west-oriented beds. Direct seeding of pepper appears to be commercially acceptable in our Mediterranean conditions, provided seed is under plastic mulch and seeding is completed on or before 12 Apr.

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T.K. Hartz

Overcoming environmental stresses during seedling establishment is crucial to successful vegetable production. In the irrigated production areas of the southwestern United States, stress most often is related to unfavorable temperature, soil or water salinity, or poor soil structure; it is frequently difficult to separate the effects of these stresses, since they may all be present to some significant degree. Growers use a variety of techniques to ameliorate these conditions. The use of sprinkler irrigation for stand establishment has become a widespread practice; sprinkling moderates soil temperature, minimizes salinity in the zone of germination, and reduces soil crusting. By modifying bed configuration, growers have been able to increase soil temperature to stimulate germination. Various chemical and physical treatments have proven effective in reducing soil crusting. The use of transplants has expanded for many crops, both as a means to circumvent seedling establishment problems and as a technique to obtain earliness.

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T.K. Hartz

Overcoming environmental stresses during seedling establishment is crucial to successful vegetable production. In the irrigated production areas of the West stress is most often related to unfavorable temperature, soil or water salinity, or poor soil structure; it is frequently difficult to separate the effects of these stresses since they may all be present to some significant degree. Growers use a variety of techniques to ameliorate these conditions. Advances in seed priming and coating have improved seedling establishment under unfavorable temperatures, particularly for lettuce. The use of sprinkler irrigation for stand establishment has become a widespread practice; sprinkling moderates soil temperature, minimizes salinity in the zone of germination, and reduces soil crusting. By modifying bed configuration growers have been able to increase soil temperature to stimulate germination. Modifying furrow irrigation patterns can create zones of lower salinity. Various chemical treatments have proven effective in reducing soil crusting. The use of transplants is expanding for many crops, both as a means to circumvent seedling establishment problems as well as a technique to obtain earliness.

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T.K. Hartz

Overcoming environmental stresses during seedling establishment is crucial to successful vegetable production. In the irrigated production areas of the southwestern United States, stress most often is related to unfavorable temperature, soil or water salinity, or poor soil structure; it is frequently difficult to separate the effects of these stresses because they may all be present to some significant degree. Growers use a variety of techniques to ameliorate these conditions. Advances in seed technology have improved seedling establishment under unfavorable temperatures, particularly for lettuce. The use of sprinkler irrigation for stand establishment has become a widespread practice; sprinkling moderates soil temperature, minimizes salinity in the zone of germination, and reduces soil crusting. By modifying bed configuration, growers have been able to increase soil temperature to stimulate germination. Modifying seed placement and furrow irrigation patterns can create zones of lower salinity. Various chemical and physical treatments have proven effective in reducing soil crusting. The use of transplants-has expanded for many crops, both as a means to circumvent seedling establishment problems, as well as a technique to obtain earliness.

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Douglas W. Heather and Joseph B. Sieczka

Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 1988 and 1989 to determine the effect of seed size and cultivar on seedling emergence through crusted soil for several hybrid broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea ssp. italica). Seed was separated into four sizes (2.0, 1.8, 1.6 and 1.4 mm diameter) for the greenhouse investigations and soil crusting was achieved with a chemical resin. In 1989, field experiments using three seed sizes (small=1.4-1.6, medium=1.7-1.9 and large=2.0-2.2 mm diameter) were planted at the Long Island Horticultural Research Laboratory in a Riverhead sandy loam which crusted readily after rainfall. Seedling emergence data from both greenhouse and field studies indicate that both seed size and cultivar significantly affect stand establishment. Seedling stand, dry weight and final yield significantly increased as seed size increased for both cultivars in the field experiments. The emergence of `Mariner' was generally found to be significantly greater than that of `Greenlady' for each seed size. Emergence was also influenced by seed weight.

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D.W. Heather and J.B. Sieczka

Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 1988 and 1989 to determine the effect of seed size and cultivar on seedling emergence through crusted soil for several hybrid broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea ssp. italica). Seed was separated into four sizes (2.0, 1.8, 1.6, and 1.4 mm in diameter) for the greenhouse investigations, and soil crusting was achieved using a crusting resin. In 1989, field experiments using three seed sizes (small = 1.4 to 1.6 mm, medium = 1.7 to 1.9 mm, and large = 2.0 to 2.2 mm in diameter) were planted at the Long Island Horticultural Research Laboratory in a Riverhead sandy loam that crusted readily following rainfall. Seedling emergence data from the greenhouse and field studies indicate that seed size and cultivar significantly affect emergence and stand establishment. Seedling stand, dry weight, and final yield significantly increased as seed size increased for both cultivars in the field experiments. The emergence of `Mariner' generally was significantly better than that of `Greenlady' for each seed size. Seed of `Greenlady' also weighed significantly less than that of `Mariner' within each seed size tested.

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Laura E. Crawford and Martin M. Williams II

during the period of crop emergence ( Fig. 2 ); however, localized flooding (i.e., standing water) was never observed. No signs of cold, heat, or water stress were observed. Moreover, soil crusting was not evident. Fig. 1. Average daily soil temperature

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Martin M. Williams II and Carl A. Bradley

growing conditions in the midwestern U.S. The 2014 trial experienced suboptimal edaphic conditions during crop emergence. Soil crusting was observed, likely the result of 1.0 inch of rainfall occurring in a short period immediately after planting, followed

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Neal Mays, Curt Richard Rom, Kristofor R. Brye, Mary C. Savin, and M. Elena Garcia

biological soil quality indicators after 21 years of organic and conventional farming Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 118 273 284 Freebairn, D.M. Gupta, S.C. Rawls, W.J. 1991 Influence of aggregate size and microrelief on development of surface soil crusts Soil Sci

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Katrina J.M. Hodgson-Kratky, Olivier M. Stoffyn, and David J. Wolyn

similar to that observed in vitro. Soil crusting or intermittent drying of the surface, even on the loam soil, could have prevented optimum results. Although establishment for the August planting date, during a period of drought, was less than half that of