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Jiwon Jeong, James Lee and Donald J. Huber

-market consumption. Western-type muskmelons, grown primarily in California, Arizona, and Texas, are less perishable than Eastern types and are used for both domestic consumption and export. Ripening and softening in climacteric fruits are largely ethylene

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Zhengke Zhang, Runshan Fu, Donald J. Huber, Jingping Rao, Xiaoxiao Chang, Meijiao Hu, Yu Zhang and Nina Jiang

‘Fupingjianshi’ persimmon ( Diospyros kaki L.) is one of the important astringent persimmon cultivars in northwest China. The cultivar is very fast to ripen at ambient temperature after harvest. Softening is a very important feature of persimmon

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Supreetha Hegde and Niels O. Maness

Pectin and hemicellulose were solubilized from cell walls of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] fruit differing in firmness by extraction with imidazole and sodium carbonate (pectin extracts), followed by a graded series of potassium hydroxide (hemicellulose extracts). The extracts were subjected to size exclusion chromatography. In imidazole extracts, as fruit softened, there was an increase in proportion of a large apparent molecular mass peak, with a galacturonosyl to rhamnosyl residue ratio resembling a rhamnogalacturonan-like polymer. A smaller apparent molecular mass peak was enriched in galacturonic acid and probably represented a broad polydisperse peak derived from more homogalacturonan-like polymers. In sodium carbonate extracts, a homogalacturonan-like polymer appeared to elute primarily as a higher apparent molecular mass constituent, which increased in quantity relative to other constituents as fruit softened. In cold 1 mol·L-1 KOH extracts three peaks predominated. A xyloglucan-like polymer appeared to elute predominantly in the second peak and fucose was strongly associated with it. In 4 mol·L-1 KOH extracts (tightly bound hemicellulose) the higher apparent molecular mass peak was predominantly acidic and presumably of pectic origin. The smaller apparent molecular mass peaks were composed primarily of neutral sugars, the second peak became smaller and the third peak larger as fruit softened. The ability to separate pectin and xyloglucan-like polymer as two separate fractions based on charge suggests that the nature of any pectin-hemicellulose interaction in this fraction is probably one of physical entrapment of pectin fractions by hemicellulose and not principally by covalent crosslinking between the two polysaccharide classes in peach. Flesh firmness serves as an important determinant of quality in peaches. Our results indicate that apparent molecular mass of both pectins and hemicelluloses changed as peaches softened, resulting in alteration of cell wall structure and associated with decreased tissue cohesion.

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Muharrem Ergun, Jiwon Jeong, Donald J. Huber and Daniel J. Cantliffe

`Galia' (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus L. Naud. `Galia') melons exhibit relatively short postharvest longevity, limited in large part by the rapid softening of this high quality melon. The present study was performed to characterize the physiological responses of `Galia' fruit harvested at green (preripe) and yellow (advanced ripening) stages and treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) before storage at 20 °C. Treatment with 1.5 μL·L-1 1-MCP before storage delayed the climacteric peaks of respiration and ethylene production of green fruit by 11 and 6 d, respectively, and also significantly suppressed respiration and ethylene production maxima. Softening of both green and yellow fruit was significantly delayed by 1-MCP. During the first 5 d at 20 °C, the firmness of green control fruit declined 66% while 1-MCP-treated fruit declined 46%. By day 11, firmness of control and 1-MCP-treated green fruit had declined about 90% and 75%, respectively. The firmness of control yellow fruit stored at 20 °C declined 70% within 5 d while 1-MCP-treated fruit declined 30%. The 1-MCP-induced firmness retention was accompanied by significant suppression of electrolyte leakage of mesocarp tissue, providing evidence that membrane dysfunction might contribute to softening of `Galia' melons. The mesocarp of fruit harvested green and treated with 1-MCP eventually ripened to acceptable quality; however, under the treatment conditions (1.5 μL·L-1 1-MCP, 24 h) used in this study, irreversible suppression of surface color development was noted. The disparity in ripening recovery between mesocarp versus epidermal tissue was considerably less evident for fruit harvested and treated with 1-MCP at an advanced stage of development. The commercial use of 1-MCP with `Galia'-type melons should prove of immense benefit in long-term storage and/or export situations, and allow for retention of quality and handling tolerance for fruit harvested at more advanced stages of ripening.

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Hiroshi Iwanami, Shigeki Moriya, Nobuhiro Kotoda, Sae Takahashi and Kazuyuki Abe

A major quality problem with apples in the marketplace is fruit softening ( Johnston et al., 2002a ). The degree or rate of softening after harvest depends on the cultivar ( Iwanami et al., 2004 ). Although ‘Fuji’ and ‘Honeycrisp’ maintain their

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Raymond A. Cloyd, Karen A. Marley, Richard A. Larson and Bari Arieli

® original brand fabric softener dryer sheets into the pockets of clothing repels mosquitoes (RAC, personal observation). Bounce® original brand fabric softener dryer sheets (Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, OH), which contain biodegradable cationic softeners

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Yunqing Zhu, Wenfang Zeng, Xiaobei Wang, Lei Pan, Liang Niu, Zhenhua Lu, Guochao Cui and Zhiqiang Wang

; Lacoux et al., 2003 ), organ initiation ( Peaucelle et al., 2011 ), and fruit softening and ripening ( Brummell et al., 2004 ; Deytieux-Belleau et al., 2008 ; Eriksson et al., 2004 ). PMEs are classified as either Type-1 PMEs (i.e., those with a

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Kang-Di Hu, Xiao-Yue Zhang, Sha-Sha Wang, Jun Tang, Feng Yang, Zhong-Qin Huang, Jing-Yu Deng, Si-Yuan Liu, Shang-Jun Zhao, Lan-Ying Hu, Gai-Fang Yao and Hua Zhang

expression, which further affect sensory attributes, flesh texture, fruit nutritional quality, and market acceptance. Fruit ripening and senescence are accompanied by texture softening, which is one of the most important factors regarding fruit quality and

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Harpartap S. Mann, Jennifer J. Alton, SooHee Kim and Cindy B.S. Tong

Apple fruit undergoes three stages of postharvest fruit softening: an initial slow softening phase, followed by a rapid softening phase, and a final slow softening phase, thus adversely affecting fruit quality ( Johnston et al., 2001 ; Knee, 1975

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Scott A. Brawner and Michele R. Warmund

durometer to measure husk softening of black walnuts. However, there is a paucity of information on the relationships between husk softening, harvest date, and kernel size and color for black walnut cultivars. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to