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Rachel Leisso, Ines Hanrahan, and Jim Mattheis

success, including soft scald ( El-Shiekh et al., 2002 ; Tong et al., 2003 ). Soft scald is characterized by sharply demarcated irregular large brown lesions on fruit peel where tissue is slightly sunken and less firm (soft) to the touch ( Plagge and

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Yin Xu, Yizhou Ma, Nicholas P. Howard, Changbin Chen, Cindy B.S. Tong, Gail Celio, Jennifer R. DeEll, and Renae E. Moran

Soft scald is a chilling-related, abiotic disorder of apple and pear ( Pyrus communis L.) fruit in which the peel develops soft, brown, sunken lesions, but the interior initially looks fine ( Brooks and Harley, 1934 ). The fruit flesh may

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Jennifer R. DeEll and Behrouz Ehsani-Moghaddam

flavor characteristics and can remain crisp for at least 6 months in cold storage ( Tong et al., 1999 ). Unfortunately, ‘Honeycrisp’ is also extremely susceptible to the storage disorders soft scald and soggy breakdown ( Tong et al., 2003 ; Watkins et al

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Renae E. Moran, Jennifer R. DeEll, and Dennis P. Murr

‘Honeycrisp’ apples develop the disorders soft scald and soggy breakdown in cold storage, particularly at temperatures below 3 °C ( Watkins et al., 2003 ). Soft scald is a low-temperature disorder that is characterized by sharply defined

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Renae E. Moran, Jennifer R. DeEll, and William Halteman

‘Honeycrisp’ is a popular cultivar that is currently being planted in large numbers in northern regions of the United States and Canada. ‘Honeycrisp’ is highly susceptible to soft scald, a chilling disorder characterized by sharply defined browning

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Cindy B.S. Tong, David S. Bedford, James J. Luby, Faye M. Propsom, Randolph M. Beaudry, James P. Mattheis, Christopher B. Watkins, and Sarah A. Weis

The effects of growing and storage locations and storage temperature on soft scald incidence of `Honeycrisp' apples were examined. In 1999 and 2000, fruits were produced at five different locations, harvested at two different times, and stored at two or five different storage locations. In 1999, fruits were stored at 0 or 2 °C. Soft scald was only observed in fruits from one growing location and primarily at 0 °C. More soft scald was observed from the second harvest than from the first. Scalded fruits were preclimacteric as determined by ethylene production rate, whereas fruits from the other locations were postclimacteric. In 2000, fruits from four of the growing locations developed soft scald, and soft scald incidence was not related to ethylene production rate. Scalded fruits had higher concentrations of phosphorus, boron, and magnesium, and lower concentrations of manganese than unaffected fruit. Development of soft scald was not related to fruit ethylene production rates, was dependent on growing location, increased with later harvest, and may be related to fruit elemental content.

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Renae E. Moran

In 2004, prestorage delays and CA storage were compared for occurrence of disorders. Fruit were harvested at a starch index of 5.9. Fruit were exposed to either a 2- or 5-day prestorage delay at 17 °C; or placed immediately into cold storage (control) at 0.5 °C. An additional treatment was CA storage at 2.5 °C. In February, occurrence of soft scald, soggy breakdown, and bitter pit were measured on 40 fruit per replication. Fruit were from `Honeycrisp'/M.26 trees planted in 1994. Treatments were replicated five times with four trees in each replication. Soft scald was very severe in this year, with 84% of control fruit being affected. Two-day prestorage delay reduced it to 48% and 5-day delay to 21%. Soggy breakdown was also severe with 14% of the fruit being affected. Two- and 5-day delays had no effect on occurrence of soggy breakdown, but CA storage increased it to 65%. Bitter pit was very rare and not affected by any of the treatments. These results demonstrate that in severe cases, shorter prestorage delay is not effective in preventing soft scald or soggy breakdown.

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Yosef Al Shoffe, Abdul Sattar Shah, Jacqueline F. Nock, and Christopher B. Watkins

‘Honeycrisp’ apples can be highly susceptible to the development of low temperature storage disorders such as soft scald (an external injury) and soggy breakdown (an internal injury) ( Lachapelle et al., 2013 , 2017 ; Tong et al., 2003 ; Wargo

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Yosef Al Shoffe and Christopher B. Watkins

challenging for storage operators. At low temperatures around 33 °F, the cultivar can develop symptoms of chilling injury (CI) such as soft scald and soggy breakdown, whereas at a higher temperature of 38 °F the fruit can be susceptible to bitter pit

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Rachel S. Leisso, Ines Hanrahan, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

CI of ‘Honeycrisp’ apple fruit is often manifested as either soft scald, which is characterized by sunken, ribbon-like brown regions of the peel ( Barker, 1938 ; Snowdon, 1990 ), or soggy breakdown, a cortex disorder characterized by similarly