Chlorine from calcium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite, or Cl gas sources has complex chemistry in irrigation water. Once added to water, Cl is converted to hypochlorite (OCl – ) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which along with dissolved Cl gas are
Seed of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Early Calwonder) receiving a sodium hypochlorite treatment germinated faster and showed more rapid early growth than seed treated with water alone or with sodium hypochlorite followed by an acid rinse.
effects on germination of primed grass seeds J. Range Mgt. 47 196 199 Hsiao, A.I. Quick, W.A. 1985 Wild oats ( Avena fatua L.) seed dormancy as influenced by sodium hypochlorite, moist storage and gibberellin A 3
During research to develop a new germination protocol for Rubus being conducted at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corvallis, we observed mixed responses to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as a seed scarifying agent. For R. parviforus Nutt., scarification with NaOCl resulted in 34% germination. Fewer than 1% of the seedlings showed any negative effects after exposure to 2.6% NaOCl for 24 hours. But in R. ursinus Cham. & Schldl., R. multibracteatus A. Leveille & Vaniot, R. swinhoei Hance, and R. setchuenensis Bureau & Franchet, the percentage of injury observed ranged from 40% to 100%. In these cases, although embryonic tissue did not appear necrotic, the radicle and plumule failed to elongate after emergence. The epicotyl or primary leaves did not develop, and the radicle failed to form root hair. The cotyledons, apparently unaffected, opened and were a healthy green. NaOCl did not kill the embryo, but deterred development of the embryonic axis. As a result of the NaOCl scarification the cotyledons expanded yet the seedlings eventually died.
Seeds of pimiento pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) artificially inoculated with Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Doidge) Dows., were disinfected by a 4.20% calcium hypochlorite solution or a 2.63% sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 minutes followed by a 15 minute water-rinse. Germination after 14 days was not reduced.
hypothesized to be related to KClO 3 toxicity ( Wiwatanadate et al., 2001 ). Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the a.i. in bleach and has been shown to increase flowering of ‘Do’ longan trees (53.7% flower emergence in untreated trees versus 96.2% flower
In the 1979-1980 and 1980-1981 seasons, stored cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata group) developed symptoms of the disorder black speck. Dipping in 500 mg/liter benomyl and 95 or 190 mg/liter chlorine (as sodium hypochlorite) solutions increased susceptibility to the development of black speck, but control of ethylene levels and an atmosphere of 3% O2 + 5% CO2 had little effect. A slight difference was noted in cultivar susceptibility and in one season a dip in water appeared to decrease the occurrence of the disorder.
Abbreviations: CNS-711, `Crisp N' Sweet 711'; ERI, emergence rate index; HSII, `How Sweet It Is'; SH, sodium hypochlorite; SMP, solid matrix priming. Univ. of Florida Agricultural Experimental Station Journal Series no. R-01761. The cost of
antimicrobial compounds have been described to extend vase life of cut flowers such as chlorine (e.g., sodium hypochlorite), which when used in vase water can reduce the number of bacteria and increase flower longevity ( Halevy and Mayak, 1981 ). On the other
The effects of NaOCl on the germination behavior of seeds of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. E-84066) were related to the concentration of NaOCl, treatment duration, solution temperature during treatment, incubation temperature during germination, and the age of the seed. Rate and percentage of germination were slower and lower, respectively, when seeds were exposed to 3% NaOCl solution at 35C for 20 or 40 min. When treatment time and temperature were reduced, or the NaOCl concentration lowered, the adverse effects were less. Fresh seeds were more sensitive than seeds that had been stored for 10 months at ambient temperature, and inhibition of germination was greater when the incubation temperature during germination was lower or higher (15 or 35C) than the optimum (25C).