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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, Judson LeCompte, T. Casey Barickman, and Bill B. Evans

objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of colored shadecloth on: 1) growth and yield of lettuce and snapdragon, 2) physiological activities of lettuce and snapdragon, and 3) flavonoid content in lettuce leaf tissue. Materials and methods

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Johanna Del Castillo Múnera and Mary K. Hausbeck

) to evaluate seven fungicides and two biological control agents for their ability to limit Pythium root rot in geranium and snapdragon, and 2) to evaluate geranium and snapdragon cultivars for their susceptibility to Pythium root rot. Materials and

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Iftikhar Ahmad, Muhammad B. Rafiq, John M. Dole, Bilal Abdullah, and Kinza Habib

production and postharvest handling protocols ( Ahmad et al., 2014 ; Regan and Dole, 2010 ). Delphinium, snapdragon, and stock are well recognized in international markets as specialty cut flowers; however, they are grown only as bedding garden plants in

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Maegen Lewis, Melanie Stock, Brent Black, Dan Drost, and Xin Dai

marketable yields ( Armitage, 1991 ). Snapdragons ( Antirrhinum majus ) are a cool-season crop that florists have indicated interest in regularly sourcing from local growers ( Wolfe and McKissick, 2007 ). Although pricing varies by stem length grade and

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Christy T. Carter and Catharine M. Grieve

States sold 55.2 million spikes of snapdragons totaling $22.4 million. Seventy-seven of these operations were located in California where annual sales approached $13.7 million ( Census of Horticultural Specialties, 1998 ). Prince and Prince, Inc. (2003

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Fahed A. Al-Mana, Abdullah M. Algahtani, Yaser H. Dewir, Majed A. Alotaibi, Mohammed A. Al-Yafrsi, and Khalid M. Elhindi

patterns, colors, and fragrances. Snapdragon ( Antirrhinum majus L.) has been cultivated for its cut flowers and as ornamental garden plants for more than 2000 years ( Li et al., 2019 ). Besides its ornamental uses, snapdragon leaves, inflorescence, and

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Leslie Heffron, Alan Blowers, and Schuyler Korban

Seeds of Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon), proprietary line OAK564, were treated with 0%, 0.10%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1.0% ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) for 8, 10, and 12 h at room temperature. The experiment was replicated three times over time. Data were collected on percent seed germination, seedling survivability, and pollen viability to determine optimal conditions for induced mutagenesis in OAK564 seeds. In the pilot experiment, M1 seeds treated with 1.0% EMS for 12 h had the lowest seed germination rate among all 18 treatments. Based on this pilot experiment, a large-scale mutagenesis experiment was performed using three levels of EMS (0.5%, 0.75%, and 1.0%) for 10-h exposure period. Mutants were induced on all these treatments, and morphological changes in the M1 population were detected. These included dwarfism, chlorophyll deficiency, and leaf morphology abnormality. This indicated that the EMS treatments were successful in inducing mutations, and mutants were further characterized for morphological traits.

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Jonathan M. Frantz, Sushant Khandekar, and Scott Leisner

response of two species, a Si accumulator zinnia and a Si non-accumulator snapdragon, to Cu toxicity with and without supplemental Si grown in hydroponics. We examined the a priori hypothesis that supplemental Si would alleviate Cu toxicity symptoms in

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Joshua R. Gerovac, Roberto G. Lopez, and Neil S. Mattson

plants in a heated GH before moving them to an HT on the growth and development of three cold-tolerant bedding plant species. Materials and Methods Expt. 1 Plant material and culture. Seedlings of snapdragon ( A. majus L. ‘Liberty Classic Yellow

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Iftikhar Ahmad and John M. Dole

Plumblossom’ snapdragon, and ‘Mid Cheerful Yellow’ stock were grown in greenhouse, while ‘Deep Red’ zinnia were field grown at the Horticultural Field Laboratory, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, during 2011–12, using standard commercial procedures