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Orion P. Grimmer and John B. Masiunas

Winter-killed cover crops may protect the soil surface from erosion and reduce herbicide use in an early planted crop such as pea (Pisum sativum). Our objective was to determine the potential of winter-killed cover crops in a snap pea production system. White mustard (Brassica hirta) produced the most residue in the fall but retained only 37% of that residue into the spring. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and oats (Avena sativa) produced less fall residue but had more residue and ground cover in the spring. Greater ground cover in the spring facilitated higher soil moisture, contributing to higher weed numbers and weight and lower pea yields for oat and barley compared with a bare ground treatment. White mustard had weed populations and pea yields similar to the bare ground treatment. Within the weed-free subplot, no differences in pea yields existed among cover crop treatments, indicating no direct interference with pea growth by the residues. In greenhouse experiments, field-grown oat and barley residue suppressed greater than 50% of the germination of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) and shepherd's-purse (Capsella bursapastoris), while in the field none of the cover crop provided better weed control than the fallow.

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Steven J. Guldan, Charles A. Martin, and Constance L. Falk

`Sugar Snap' snap peas (Pisum sativum L.) were interseeded into a stand of `Española Improved' chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in July or Aug. in 1995, 1996, and 1997. Peas were interseeded as one or two rows per bed, giving planting rates of about 92 or 184 kg·ha-1, respectively. Our objectives were to determine: 1) if intercropped pea would reduce chile yield and vice versa; 2) the effects of pea planting rates and dates on pea yield. Intercropped peas reduced chile yield by about 22% in 1995, but had no significant effects in other years. Pea plants from the August intercrops reached the flowering stage but did not produce pods in 1995 or 1996; some small pods were produced from August intercrops in 1997. Final plant densities were lower and less uniform in 1996 than in 1995 or 1997. Intercropped peas yielded less than monocropped peas in all years. Pea yields ranged from 1370 to 3960 kg·ha-1 when monocropped, 31 kg·ha-1 (1996 single-row) to 646 kg·ha-1 (1995 double-row) when intercropped. In 1995 only, the double-row intercrop yielded more peas than the single-row intercrop. Pod yield/plant was reduced 80%, 98%, and 96% in 1995, 1996, and 1997, respectively, by intercropping. Estimated gross revenues for the treatments indicate that, under the price assumptions used in the study, interseeding snap peas into stands of chile in north-central New Mexico is not economically advantageous compared with monocropped chile.

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James R. Baggett and Deborah Kean

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Rhuanito S. Ferrarezi, Stuart A. Weiss, Thomas C. Geiger, and K. Paul Beamer

). Snow pea (thin walls) has flat pods that are harvested when the pods have reached full size but before seeds have developed. Sugar snap pea (thick pod walls) has round pods that are harvested after seed development ( Gross et al., 2014 ). In terms of

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Rebecca J. McGee and James R. Baggett

Abbreviations: NOF, `Nofila' snow pea; OSP, `Oregon Sugarpod II' snow pea; OSU, Oregon State Univ.; SD, `Sugar Daddy' snap pea. 1 Formerly Graduate Research Assistant. Current address: The Pillsbury Co., 1201 North Fourth Street, Le Sueur, MN 56058

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protein, and sodium borate sprays were applied either alone or in conjunction with calcium chloride. Only calcium chloride consistently reduced losses to bitter pit. WINTER-KILLED COVER-CROPPING SYSTEMS FOR EARLY SEASON SNAP PEAS Cover crops reduce soil

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Brian A. Kahn

of a following crop of forage sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) compared with an unfertilized control ( Guldan et al., 1997a ). However, interseeding snap pea ( Pisum sativum ) into stands of chile pepper was not economically advantageous compared with

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the highly preferred online format. Edible-pod Peas as High-value Crops in the U.S. Virgin Islands Snow pea and sugar snap pea are high-value crops typically grown in temperate regions. Temperature is the main factor limiting the production of edible

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Richard H. Molinar

are generally preferred. Long beans are a warm-season crop. It is cut into 2-inch pieces and added to various stir-fries. The paler green variety is generally sweeter and more tender than the dark green one. Snap pea and snow pea ( Pisum sativum

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Yun Kong, Katherine Schiestel, David Llewellyn, and Youbin Zheng

vulgaris ) without additional inputs of water and fertilizer reduced the yield and growth of tomato compared with monocropping tomato ( Teasdale and Deahl, 1987 ). Obviously, the snap peas competed with the tomatoes for resources during their overlapped