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Open access

J. W. Courter, C. M. Sabota, and J. N. Moore

Abstract

Customer harvest (PYO) of research plots at University of Illinois and University of Arkansas research stations began in the late 1960s when it became difficult to harvest extensive research plots. Similar methods were developed independently for customer harvest at both locations. Initially we invited faculty, staff, their wives, and eventually other local people to pick strawberries, blackberries, and blueberries. We obtained yield records and the customers paid for the fruit. Data were collected to evaluate cultivars and advanced breeding selections of strawberries, blueberries, and blackberries.

Free access

Fumiomi Takeda

35 WORKSHOP 3 (Abstr. 674-677) Horticultural Aspects of Phytochemicals in Small Fruits Monday, 24 July, 10:00 a.m.-12:00 noon

Free access

P. Perkins-Veazie

35 WORKSHOP 3 (Abstr. 674-677) Horticultural Aspects of Phytochemicals in Small Fruits Monday, 24 July, 10:00 a.m.-12:00 noon

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Carlo Fallovo, Valerio Cristofori, Emilio Mendoza de-Gyves, Carlos Mario Rivera, Roberto Rea, Simone Fanasca, Cristina Bignami, Youssef Sassine, and Youssef Rouphael

Accurate and nondestructive methods to determine individual leaf areas of plants are a useful tool in physiological and agronomic research. Determining the individual leaf area (LA) of small fruit like raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), redcurrant (Ribes rubrum L.), blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.), gooseberry (Ribes grossularia L.), and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) involves measurements of leaf parameters such as length (L) and width (W) or some combinations of these parameters. A 2-year investigation was carried out during 2006 (on seven raspberry, seven redcurrant, six blackberry, five gooseberry, and two highbush blueberry cultivars) and 2007 (on one cultivar per species) under open field conditions to test whether a model could be developed to estimate LA of small fruits across cultivars. Regression analysis of LA versus L and W revealed several models that could be used for estimating the area of individual small fruit leaves. A linear model having LW as the independent variable provided the most accurate estimate (highest R 2, smallest mean square error, and the smallest predicted residual error sum of squares) of LA in all small fruit berries. Validation of the model having LW of leaves measured in the 2007 experiment coming from other cultivars of small fruit berries showed that the correlation between calculated and measured small fruit berries LAs was very high. Therefore, these models can estimate accurately and in large quantities the LA of small fruit plants in many experimental comparisons without the use of any expensive instruments.

Open access

Ervin L. Denisen

Abstract

Horticulture production management positions that have been filled by paraprofessionals for many years are gradually becoming available to better qualified men and women with horticultural degrees. Although some horticultural industries had long sought horticultural graduates for their management positions, others have only recently become aware of the larger profits available to them through fewer mistakes made by horticultural graduates. It is true that the young, inexperienced graduate from the various horticulture departments around the country will need to be trained in procedures peculiar to the company that has employed them. In fact, most successful enterprises insist on training their own personnel in their particular operational procedures. However, a basic knowledge of olericulture, ornamentals, pomology, plant growth and development, propagation, genetics, pathology, entomology, soils, nutrition, systematics, and all other segments of horticulture must be obtained through a good course of study in horticulture to prepare the graduate so that he or she may make the contribution needed by industry.

Open access

justn R. Morris

Abstract

The research program on fruit crops at the University of Arkansas interrelates the areas of harvest mechanization, pre- and postharvest physiology and processing. This program is designed to serve a highly competitive, growing processing industry. Through cooperative research undertaken by the Departments of Horticultural Food Science and Agricultural Engineering, mechanical harvesters were developed for blackberries (refer HortScience 13:228-235) and strawberries (refer HortScience 13:000-000). Utilizing the principle of fruit abscission, blackberry fruit can be selectively mechanically harvested on a commercial basis at the rate of 1 acre per hour, while product quality is superior to hand-harvested fruit.

Free access

Shiow Y. Wana, John L. Maas, and Gene J. Galletta

Ellagic acid, a putative anticarcinogenic compound, was detected in plants of mayhaw (Crataegus spp.), false strawberry (Duchesnea indica), strawberry (Fragaria spp.), black currant (Ribes nigrum), thornless blackberry (Rubus subgenus Eubatus), red raspberry (Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Large differences in ellagic acid contents have been found among species and cultivars and also among tissues. Ellagic acid content in plant tissues is also affected by environmental factors and shows a seasonal variation in strawberry leaves. A decrease in ellagic acid content of leaves was associated with seasonal decreases in photoperiod and temperature from September to December. Ellagic acid content in the leaves of red raspberry infected with orange rust showed more than a 3-fold increase compared to healthy leaves.

Open access

Ronald G. Goldy

Abstract

Flower buds of blackberries, blueberries, grapes, raspberries, and strawberries were observed in order to determine the relationship of morphological development and meiosis. Blueberries showed the least development whereas grapes and brambles had considerable development prior to meiosis. Meiotic figures were found with relative ease in blueberries, strawberries, and grapes but with difficulty in brambles.

Open access

Justin R. Morris

Abstract

There has been a revolution in recent years in the area of small fruit and grape harvesting. Hand labor has become both scarce and costly, thus invention and development of mechanical harvesters have become important research objectives for research scientists in Land-Grant Institutions, in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and in private industry.