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Chad Finn, Joseph Postman, and Maxine Thompson

51 POSTER SESSION 2A (Abstr. 068–084) Breeding & Genetics—Fruits/Nuts, Small Fruit/Viticulture

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Kathleen Demchak

High tunnel usage for small fruit crops In the past, protected culture including use of high tunnels was used to a great extent in other countries, and to a lesser extent in the United States ( Hancock and Simpson, 1995 ; Wittwer and Castilla, 1995

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Michele Renee Warmund, Patrick Guinan, and Gina Fernandez

). The cold wave occurred over an extended period when many of the small fruit crops were at an advanced stage of growth, making it a particularly devastating freeze. Fig. 1. Minimum air temperatures (°C) at selected locations affected by the 4 to

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Hisayo Yamane, Megumi Ichiki, Ryutaro Tao, Tomoya Esumi, Keizo Yonemori, Takeshi Niikawa, and Hino Motosugi

bud-sport mutations that affect fruit size are common ( Yonemori et al., 2000 ). Recently, a small-fruit mutant, Totsutanenashi (TTN), which originated from the leading cultivar in Japan, Hiratanenashi (HTN), was discovered in Masaharu Kondo's orchard

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John R. Stommel

demonstrate that simple genetic inheritance can explain reduced seed number in small-fruited specialty pepper lines suitable for breeding new snack pepper cultivars. Further research is required to determine the physiological basis of reduced seed count and

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E.B. Poling

Working on the basic idea that the small fruit industries in Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Arkansas, and other states in the south have a great deal of growth potential, especially in strawberries, the Southern Region Small Fruit Center is now becoming a very focused collaboration between several land-grant institutions to develop a virtual small fruit center web site that will serve to keep specialists, agents, growers, and students well informed on the latest small fruit research and technical findings. It would also give instant access to a variety of small fruit extension publications, budgets, and crop advisories. The site,, opened on 17 Sept. 1999, and was immediately utilized after Hurricane Floyd “hit” to post a series of berry info advisories on specific postplant management strategies to minimize further yield losses due to the extra week of delayed planting caused by Floyd's flooding. The main benefit of regional or multistate institutional approach is that it gives us the “extra horsepower” for tackling some fairly ambitious projects, like the creation of a virtual small fruit center. Recently, the center has begun to offer more in-depth regional training courses for agents and growers, such as the “Extension Strawberry Plasticulture” short course that was conducted on North Carolina State Centennial Campus, 1-5 Nov. 1999. We currently have a “critical mass” of some of the best small fruit research and extension workers you will find anywhere across the whole southern region, and by working together we can develop stronger, more economically viable small fruit industries.

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Marvin P. Pritts

Manipulating light, temperature, moisture, and nutrients to favor plant growth and productivity is an important component of horticulture. The technology required to achieve such manipulation ranges from inexpensive, basic practices to elaborate, costly approaches involving the latest engineering advances. For example, pruning and mulching are relatively low-tech methods for improving light interception and soil moisture status in small fruit plantings. At the opposite extreme are glass houses with supplemental lighting, CO2 enrichment, and nutrient film hydroponic systems Of greatest value to small fruit growers, however, is technology that ran be applied in field situations, such as the use of overhead irrigation for maintaining soil moisture status, frost protection, and evaporative cooling. One of the greatest challenges to small fruit growers and rcsearchers is integrating new technology into production systems. The introduction of a new technique for environmental modification usually has indirect effects on other aspects of management, which may require additional technology to compensate for adverse changes while maintaining the favorable change. In addition, unique macro- and microclimates demand and market opportunities, specific solutions, and the result is a dynamic, diverse collage of production systems used by growers throughout the world.

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Serge Bégin, Alain Garneau, Michèle Roy, and Pierre O. Thibodeau

Consequent to the propositions of the Québec Agriculture Summit concerning suggestions to increase research efforts and technological transfer and market awareness, members of the research division of the provincial ministry of agriculture have established an animation team in small-fruit research and development. This group will be composed of scientists whose mandate will be to lead and rally the small-fruit sector into regrouping, to provide adequate tools necessary for research and development (bibliography, periodicals, etc.), to counsel and plan research and development projects, and to give advice on actions and means of development in a particular sector.

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John R. Clark and Curt R. Rom

Small fruit production in the southern United States has been impacted greatly by fruit breeders this century. This workshop, co-sponsored by the American Pomological Society, includes presentations from individuals who have contributed collectively over 150 years to small fruit and grape breeding. James N. Moore has conducted breeding at the University of Arkansas, developing 30 cultivars. His presentation on brambles outlines achievements and future opportunities for improvement. Arlen Draper has been involved with the development of 61 small fruit cultivars while working with the USDA-ARS with an emphasis on blueberry. His presentation focuses on blueberry breeding and provides insights into the future of new blueberry cultivar developments. Gene Galletta has conducted small fruit breeding at North Carolina State University and USDA-ARS and has been involved with the development of 50 cultivars. His presentation reflects on the history of strawberry breeding in the South and the challenges that lie ahead. Ron Lane has served as a fruit breeder and horticulturist at the University of Georgia Experiment Station at Griffin and his work has emphasized the development of muscadine grape cultivars. The past and future of muscadine and bunch grape breeding is discussed in his paper. Articles from all authors in this workshop will be published in Fruit Varieties Journal in 1997.

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W. Kalt, J.E. McDonald, and S. MacKinnon

Fruit and vegetable components that possess antioxidant capacity are being actively investigated because of the purported impact of dietary antioxidants on human health. Phenolic components, including anthocyanins, are believed to be major contributors to the antioxidant capacity of many small fruit species. Various horticultural factors have been examined with respect to anthocyanin and phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of small fruit, especially Vaccinium species. Vaccinium species, and certain other fruits, had a high antioxidant capacity compared to strawberries and raspberries. However, genotypic variation in these characteristics was substantial among wild blueberry clones. Fruit maturity did not influence antioxidant capacity, although phenolic profiles changed dramatically during ripening. Fresh storage of certain ripe fruit at 20 °C led to increased anthocyanin content and increased antioxidant capacity. Certain food processing factors, such as heat and oxygen, decreased the antioxidant capacity of blueberry products.