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Fumiomi Takeda

35 WORKSHOP 3 (Abstr. 674-677) Horticultural Aspects of Phytochemicals in Small Fruits Monday, 24 July, 10:00 a.m.-12:00 noon

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P. Perkins-Veazie

35 WORKSHOP 3 (Abstr. 674-677) Horticultural Aspects of Phytochemicals in Small Fruits Monday, 24 July, 10:00 a.m.-12:00 noon

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Carlo Fallovo, Valerio Cristofori, Emilio Mendoza de-Gyves, Carlos Mario Rivera, Roberto Rea, Simone Fanasca, Cristina Bignami, Youssef Sassine, and Youssef Rouphael

Accurate and nondestructive methods to determine individual leaf areas of plants are a useful tool in physiological and agronomic research. Determining the individual leaf area (LA) of small fruit like raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), redcurrant (Ribes rubrum L.), blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.), gooseberry (Ribes grossularia L.), and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) involves measurements of leaf parameters such as length (L) and width (W) or some combinations of these parameters. A 2-year investigation was carried out during 2006 (on seven raspberry, seven redcurrant, six blackberry, five gooseberry, and two highbush blueberry cultivars) and 2007 (on one cultivar per species) under open field conditions to test whether a model could be developed to estimate LA of small fruits across cultivars. Regression analysis of LA versus L and W revealed several models that could be used for estimating the area of individual small fruit leaves. A linear model having LW as the independent variable provided the most accurate estimate (highest R 2, smallest mean square error, and the smallest predicted residual error sum of squares) of LA in all small fruit berries. Validation of the model having LW of leaves measured in the 2007 experiment coming from other cultivars of small fruit berries showed that the correlation between calculated and measured small fruit berries LAs was very high. Therefore, these models can estimate accurately and in large quantities the LA of small fruit plants in many experimental comparisons without the use of any expensive instruments.

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Shiow Y. Wana, John L. Maas, and Gene J. Galletta

Ellagic acid, a putative anticarcinogenic compound, was detected in plants of mayhaw (Crataegus spp.), false strawberry (Duchesnea indica), strawberry (Fragaria spp.), black currant (Ribes nigrum), thornless blackberry (Rubus subgenus Eubatus), red raspberry (Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Large differences in ellagic acid contents have been found among species and cultivars and also among tissues. Ellagic acid content in plant tissues is also affected by environmental factors and shows a seasonal variation in strawberry leaves. A decrease in ellagic acid content of leaves was associated with seasonal decreases in photoperiod and temperature from September to December. Ellagic acid content in the leaves of red raspberry infected with orange rust showed more than a 3-fold increase compared to healthy leaves.

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Chrislyn A. Drake and John R. Clark

Primocane-fruiting blackberry (Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson) selections have recently been developed by the University of Arkansas, but proper cane-management practices for the new germplasm have not yet been determined. It was observed in previous trials that primocane-fruiting selections flowered and fruited in late July and early August in Arkansas, which is often the hottest part of the summer and earlier than desired. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of primocane tipping on cane and fruit characteristics and to determine the effect of floricane presence on primocane performance. In Fayetteville, one-year-old plants of selections APF-8 and APF-12 were used to apply the four primocane-tipping treatments in combination with the two cane management treatments (presence or absence of floricanes). In Clarksville, the same genotypes were used to apply the two cane management treatments (presence or absence of floricanes). The tipping treatments had a significant effect on primocane yield and peak harvest as well as other parameters. The cane management treatments had a significant effect on total yield, but no other effects.

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James M. Spiers

In a field study, `Gulfcoast' southern highbush blueberry plants were subjected to irrigation [7.5 L (low) or 30 L per week (high)], mulching (none or 15 cm depth), row height (level or raised 15 cm), and soil-incorporated peatmoss (none or 15 L in each planting hole) treatments, in a factorial arrangement, at establishment. Plants were grown on a well-drained fine sandy loam soil that contained <1.0% organic matter. Plant volume and fruit yield were greater with mulching, high irrigation, incorporated peatmoss, and level beds. Plants grown with the combination of mulching, level beds, incorporated peatmoss, and high irrigation levels yielded 2.4 kg per plant or approximately eight times as much as plants grown without mulch, with raised beds, without peatmoss, and with the low rate of irrigation. Of the four establishment practices evaluated, mulching had the greatest influence on plant growth and fruiting.

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John R. Clark and Penelope Perkins-Veazie