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Martin Brüggenwirth and Moritz Knoche

fruit increases, the skin is strained, and this must eventually lead to mechanical failure. On the basis of this concept, water uptake into the fruit and the mechanical properties of the skin are the most critical factors in cracking. Only a few studies

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Xiang Wang, Ramón A. Arancibia, Jeffrey L. Main, Mark W. Shankle and Don R. LaBonte

and the Gulf South ( Boudreaux, 2012 ; Meyers et al., 2013 ) but is prone to skinning (surface abrasion) during harvest and postharvest handling. Skinned areas become susceptible to pathogen infections and moisture loss, which results in an

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Andreas Winkler, Eckhard Grimm, Moritz Knoche, Julian Lindstaedt and Dirk Köpcke

Skin appearance is an important quality characteristic in almost all fruit crops including apples. Compromised skin appearance usually results in reduced market value. Russeting is a common and familiar example of a surface disorder of some apple

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Jollanda Effendy, Don R. La Bonte and Niranjan Baisakh

rely on biparental crossing to generate a breeding population. Breeding programs have consistently pursued the following goals: 1) higher storage root yield; 2) storage roots with a consistent spindle-like shape and attractive smooth skin; 3) field and

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Edward A. Evans and Fredy H. Ballen

Organization of the United Nations, 2014 )]. The bulk (88.04%) of U.S. avocado production is of the cultivar Hass, with the balance being classified as a “green-skin” cultivar. U.S. production of ‘Hass’ avocado occurs predominately in California while

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Alba J. Collart, Stephen L. Meyers and Jason K. Ward

commercial production is concentrated in North Carolina, California, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, skinning injury remains one of the greatest concerns to sweetpotato producers nationally (M.W. Shankle, unpublished data). Sweetpotato skin is relatively

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Eckhard Grimm, Stefanie Peschel, Tobias Becker and Moritz Knoche

Rain-cracking severely limits sweet cherry production worldwide ( Christensen, 1996 ). By breaching fruit skin integrity, it exposes the underlying flesh to rapid drying and to invasion by insects and pathogens. Cracking is thought to be related to

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Martin Brüggenwirth and Moritz Knoche

) of two, mechanistically unrelated, factors. First, the net import of water into the fruit will affect cracking by causing fruit volume to increase, thereby straining the skin beyond some defined upper limit. Second, mechanical properties of the fruit

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Martin Brüggenwirth and Moritz Knoche

uptake by the fruit. Thus, any net water uptake necessarily increases fruit volume and subjects the skin to additional strain ( Considine and Brown, 1981 ). If the limit of extensibility of the fruit skin is exceeded, the fruit cracks. On the basis of

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Raquel Enedina Medina-Carrillo, Samuel Salazar-García, Jorge Armando Bonilla-Cárdenas, Juan Antonio Herrera-González, Martha Elva Ibarra-Estrada and Arturo Álvarez-Bravo

., 2015 ). In ‘Hass’ avocado fruit, the highest PC concentration was present in the exocarp (skin), probably because of the exposure of this tissue to stress conditions ( Tesfay et al., 2010 ). In smooth-bark Mexican pine ( Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl.) and