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Lili Zhou, Frank Kappel, Cheryl Hampson, Paul A. Wiersma, and Guus Bakkeren

Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used to analyze the relationships between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars and selections from the breeding program at the Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre in Summerland, Canada. Six pairs of preselected primers were used for the analysis of a total of 67 cultivars and selections. Scoring the absence and presence of 118 polymorphic DNA fragments produced a unique binary code for each cultivar and selection. Two phylogenetic trees were constructed using these 118 polymorphic fragments, one tree for 55 related cultivars and selections from the Summerland breeding program and the other for 23 self-incompatible cultivars of differing origins. The reliability of AFLP DNA fingerprints was confirmed by correlating relationships revealed by AFLP profiles with known genetic relationships of some sweet cherry cultivars and by a blind test for cultivar identification. Results indicate that AFLP analysis is a good technique to evaluate genetic distance and relationships in a sweet cherry breeding population.

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Lyn A. Gettys and Dennis J. Werner

Stokes aster is a herbaceous perennial native to the southeastern United States. Stokesia is a monotypic genus belonging to the tribe Vernonieae Cass. (family Asteraceae Dumont). The level of genetic diversity within the genus is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the level of genetic diversity and relatedness among cultivars of stokes aster. The genetic relatedness among 10 cultivars of stokes aster, one accession of Vernonia crinita Raf. (syn. V. arkansana DC.), and one accession of Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. var. sullivantii (Beadle et Boynton) Cronq. `Goldsturm' was estimated using 74 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. Similarity indices suggest that cultivars of stokes aster are very closely related, with values for all pairwise comparisons of cultivars of stokes aster ranging from 0.92 to 0.68. One cultivar, `Omega Skyrocket', had markedly lower similarity indices from the other cultivars, ranging from 0.72 to 0.68. Similarity indices between stokes aster and Vernonia and between stokes aster and Rudbeckia were 0.44 and 0.50, respectively.

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Claudio Cantini, Antonio Cimato, Antonella Autino, Alessandro Redi, and Mauro Cresti

of the same package was finally used to provide a graphic representation of Lynch's similarity index data, from which relationships among accessions may be deduced. Results and Discussion Not more than two fragments were amplified for each

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Maria G. Emmanouilidou, Marios C. Kyriacou, and Isabel Trujillo

present (1) or absent (0). Finally, this matrix was used to perform a cluster analysis based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean algorithm using Dice’s similarity index ( Dice, 1945 ) on NTSYS-PC v2.02 software ( Rohlf, 1998 ). The

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Monica L. Elliott, J.A. McInroy, K. Xiong, J.H. Kim, H.D. Skipper, and E.A. Guertal

were analyzed using the Sherlock Standard Aerobe Libraries (MIS version 4.0; Microbial ID, http://www.midi-inc.com ). According to literature provided by MIDI, strains with a similarity index (SI) of 0.500 or greater are considered a good match at the

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P. Obara-Okeyo, K. Fujii, and S. Kako

Eight enzyme systems were used to study electrophoretic variability among 12 species of Cymbidium Swartz and to assess phylogenetic relationships among them. The species could be easily distinguished by two enzyme systems, malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and phosphoglucose isomerase (GPI), although other enzyme combinations were also diagnostic. Genetic similarity index data indicated considerable genetic variability among the 12 species. Isozyme data supported the current taxonomic placement of the investigated species. The terrestrials [Cymbidium goeringii (Rchb. f.) Rchb. f., Cymbidium ensifolium (L.) Swartz, and Cymbidium sinense (Jackson) Wild.], which are all members of the subgenus Jensoa (Rafin.) Seth & Cribb., were the most closely related.

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Naomi R. Smith and Robert N. Trigiano

Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) is an important tree of forests and urban landscapes in the eastern United States. Currently, there are over 100 cultivars of flowering dogwood commercially available. An identification process based on genotype would be of use to researchers, breeders, and nurserymen, as many cultivars are similar phenotypically. Molecular markers offer a promising way of definitively identifying flowering dogwood cultivars. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a technique that can be used to generate DNA fingerprints. DNA was isolated from leaves of 17 common cultivars of dogwood and AFLP fingerprints were generated by a Beckman Coulter CEQ™ 8000. Fingerprints were converted to binary data and verified manually. Two drafts of a cultivar identification key were generated based on the corrected, verified binary data and cultivar-specific peaks. Six primer combinations were used to construct all keys and were tested with seven unknown dogwood cultivar samples. Six unknown samples were correctly identified using the keys. Only one unknown, `Cherokee Brave', was unidentifiable with any key. In all cases, some intracultivar variation was observed. A similarity index was calculated and visualized with a tree of genetic relatedness using NTSYSpc. Intracultivar variation was observed in the similarity index as well. This database for cultivar-specific molecular markers will serve as a starting point to which other cultivars can be added and also can be used in breeding applications, patent application and other projects, such as mapping the C. florida genome.

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Salih Kafkas, Yıldız Doğan, Ali Sabır, Ali Turan, and Hasbi Seker

Genetic relationships among 18 Turkish hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars were investigated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Twenty-five RAPD primers, 25 ISSR primers, and eight AFLP primer pairs generated a total of 434 polymorphic marker loci. The three marker systems were able to differentiate the cultivars. Genetic similarity index values ranged from a high of 0.96 for ‘Kan’ and ‘UzunMusa’ to a low of 0.73 for ‘Yassi Badem’ and ‘Kalinkara’. The genetic relationships were presented as an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram and a three-dimensional principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) plot. The UPGMA dendrogram showed two main clusters, while PCoA analysis showed three groups. Cultivar-specific markers were produced by all marker systems for 10 cultivars. This study demonstrates the usefulness of molecular markers for identification of hazelnut cultivars.

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Benyamin Lakitan

A survey has been conducted to evaluate kinds of horticultural crops grown at home gardens at 40 villages in South Sumatra Province. The villages were purposely selected to represent all geomorphological regions of the province, from highland (>1400 m above sea level) to tidal swamp along the coastal. Ten home gardens were randomly selected at each village. Most common horticultural crops found at home gardens were fruits crops such as banana, pineapple, and soursop. Surprisingly, vegetable crops were rarely (<22.0%) found at home gardens. Based on Sorenson's similarity index, it can be concluded that kinds of fruit crops grown were similar at most villages surveys, except for those at altitudes higher than 1000 m above sea level. Average density of perennial fruit tress was 4.6 trees/100 m2, with a range from 1.7 to 10.9 trees/100 m2.

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Hak-Tae Lim

The phylogenetic relationships between Korean endemic, Hanabusaya asiatica, and its allied groups, including four genera and nine species, were investigated at the DNA level using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Ten primers out of 80 primers (10-mer) screened gave rise to very high polymorphism (99%) in all of the tested plants, producing 153 randomly amplified DNA fragments. H. asiatica was differentiated from its allied groups at the 0.62 of similarity index of RAPDs. This results were in accordance with previous classification based on palynological studies. It was confirmed that H. asiatica could be placed into Korean endemic and suggested that RAPD technique be used as an additional method of phylogenetic relationship for plant systematics.