To evaluate the effects of nutrient concentration and pH of the fertilizer solution on growth and nutrient uptake of salvia (Salvia splendens F. Sellow ex Roem. & Schult. `Scarlet Sage'), we grew plants with five different concentrations of Hoagland nutrient solution [0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0× full strength; electrical conductivity (EC) of 0.4, 0.7, 1.1, 2.0, and 3.7 dS·m-1, respectively]. In a concurrent experiment, plants were subirrigated with modified Hoagland solution at 0.5× concentration and one of five solution pH values: 4.4, 5.4, 6.4, 7.2, and 8.0. Shoot and total dry weight and leaf area increased greatly with increasing nutrient solution concentrations from 0.125 to 1.0×, while leaf photosynthesis (Pn), transpiration, and stomatal conductance decreased with increasing nutrient solution concentrations. Treatment effects on growth apparently were caused by changes in carbon allocation within the plants. Shoot: root ratio and leaf area ratio increased with increasing fertilizer concentration. Plants flowered 8 days later at low concentrations of nutrient solution than at high concentrations. Shoot tissue concentrations of N, P, K, and B increased, while C, Al, Mo, and Na decreased with increasing concentration of the nutrient solution. The pH of the nutrient solution had no effect on the growth or gas exchange of the plants, while its effects on nutrient concentration in the shoot tissue generally were smaller than those of fertilizer concentration. These results indicate that 1.0 to 2.0× concentrations of Hoagland solution result in maximum growth, apparently because the plants produce leaf area more efficiently at high fertilizer concentrations.
Jong-Goo Kang and Marc W. van Iersel
Francisco García-Sánchez and J.P. Syvertsen
Three-month-old citrus rootstock seedlings of the Cl- excluder Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and the Cl- accumulator Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis (L.) Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L.] were fertilized with nutrient solution with or without additional 50 mm NaCl and grown at either ambient CO2 (360 μL·L-1) or elevated CO2 (700 μL·L-1) in similar controlled environment greenhouses for 8 weeks. Elevated CO2 increased plant growth, shoot/root ratio, leaf dry weight per area, net assimilation of CO2, chlorophyll, and water-use efficiency but decreased transpiration rate. Elevated CO2 decreased leaf Ca2+ and N concentration in non-salinized Cleopatra. Salinity increased leaf Cl- and Na+ in both genotypes. Carrizo had higher concentrations of Cl-but lower Na+ in leaves than Cleopatra. Salinity decreased plant growth, shoot/root ratio, net gas exchange, water use, and root Ca+2 but increased root N in both genotypes regardless of CO2 level. Neither salinity nor elevated CO2 affected leaf chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm). Carrizo had higher Fv/Fm, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll, N, and Ca2+ than Cleopatra. Salinity-induced decreases in leaf osmotic potential increased leaf turgor especially at elevated CO2. The increase in leaf growth at elevated CO2 was greater in salinized than in nonsalinized Carrizo but was similar in Cleopatra seedlings regardless of salt treatment. In addition, salinity decreased water-use efficiency more at elevated CO2 than at ambient CO2 in Cleopatra but not in Carrizo. Elevated CO2 also decreased leaf Cl- and Na+ in Carrizo but tended to increase both ions in Cleopatra leaves. Based on leaf growth, water-use efficiency and salt ion accumulation, elevated CO2 increased salinity tolerance in the relatively salt-sensitive Carrizo more than in the salt-tolerant Cleopatra. In salinized seedlings of both genotypes, Cl- and Na+ concentration changes in response to eCO2 in leaves vs. roots were generally in opposite directions. Thus, the modifications of citrus seedling responses to salinity by the higher growth and lower transpiration at elevated CO2 were not only species dependent, but also involved whole plant growth and allocations of Na+ and Cl-.
Jaime Barros da Silva Filho, Paulo Cezar Rezende Fontes, Paulo Roberto Cecon, Jorge F.S. Ferreira, Milton E. McGiffen Jr., and Jonathan F. Montgomery
M . Additionally, the shoot:root ratio was calculated according to the formula: S H : R R = S H D M R D M , where BP organ = biomass partitioned to the organ; DM organ = dry matter of the organ; TODM = total dry matter; SH:R R = shoot:root
Yoshiaki Kitaya, Genhua Niu, Toyoki Kozai, and Maki Ohashi
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Summer-green) plug transplants were grown for 3 weeks under 16 combinations of four levels (100, 150, 200, and 300 μmol·m-2·s-1) of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), two photoperiods (16 and 24 h), and two levels of CO2 (400 and 800 μmol·mol-1) in growth chambers maintained at an air temperature of 20 ±2 °C. As PPF increased, dry mass (DM), percent DM, and leaf number increased, while ratio of shoot to root dry mass (S/R), ratio of leaf length to leaf width (LL/LW), specific leaf area, and hypocotyl length decreased. At the same PPF, DM was increased by 25% to 100% and 10% to 100% with extended photoperiod and elevated CO2 concentration, respectively. Dry mass, percent DM, and leaf number increased linearly with daily light integral (DLI, the product of PPF and photoperiod), while S/R, specific leaf area, LL/LW and hypocotyl length decreased as DLI increased under each CO2 concentration. Hypocotyl length was influenced by PPF and photoperiod, but not by CO2 concentration. Leaf morphology, which can be reflected by LL/LW, was substantially influenced by PPF at 100 to 200 μmol·m-2·s-1, but not at 200 to 300 μmol·m-2·s-1. At the same DLI, the longer photoperiod promoted growth under the low CO2 concentration, but not under the high CO2 concentration. Longer photoperiod and/or higher CO2 concentration compensated for a low PPF.
Chenping Xu and Beiquan Mou
ratio. The treatment of 5Co significantly increased leaf DW ( Table 2 ), irrigation WUE and shoot:root ratio, and decreased shoot DW:FW ratio, compared with control. Table 2. Effects of composted cattle manure or cotton burr as soil amendments on spinach
Rafael Urrea-López, Rocío I. Díaz de la Garza, and Juan I. Valiente-Banuet
treatment. On the other hand, the shoot:root ratio showed a significant reduction in the low N and low P treatments ( Table 3 ). Fruit yield, measured as the number of fruits and biomass per plant, was only significantly reduced when plants were exposed to
Nicolas Gruyer, Martine Dorais, Gérald J. Zagury, and Beatrix W. Alsanius
inoculation treatments on plant development, the leaf area ratio [LAR (i.e., leaf area per unit of the whole plant dry biomass), the specific leaf weight [SLW (i.e., leaf weight per unit of leaf area)], and the shoot:root ratio were calculated. Chl a
Elvia Hernández-Gómez, Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Ana M. Castillo-González, María T. Colinas-León, Donita L. Cartmill, Andrew D. Cartmill, and R. Hugo Lira-Saldívar
area ( Table 1 ), leaf DM ( Table 1 ), shoot DM ( Table 2 ), and the shoot:root ratio ( Table 2 ) when NH 4 + was 50% or greater, 75%, 50% or greater, and 25% or greater, respectively, whereas root DM ( Table 2 ) increased when NH 4 + was 25% to 50
Carlos Vinicius Garcia Barreto, Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Flávio Bussmeyer Arruda, and Roberto Testezlaf
, P = 0.0057). Total dry mass in T1 was 64% higher than T3 and 26% higher than T2. Fig. 2. Leaf ( A ), stem ( B ), root ( C ), and total ( D ) dry mass, shoot/root ratio ( E ), and leaf/whole plant ratio ( F ) of Rangpur lime at 36, 55, 75, and 90 d
William R. Graves
Growth, dry-matter partitioning, and specific mass of lamina of black maple (Acer nigrum Michx.f.) and sugar maple (A. saccharum Marsh.) irrigated at 10-, 26-, and 42-day intervals were compared. Total dry mass, stem length, and surface area of lamina were greater for sugar maple than for black maple for plants irrigated every 10 days. Reducing irrigation frequency curtailed growth of both species, but the reduction was greater for sugar maple than for black maple. The shoot: root ratio was lower for black maple than for sugar maple and was reduced by drought in both species, particularly among plants irrigated every 26 days. Specific mass of lamina increased as plants aged, was greater for black maple than for sugar maple, and decreased in response to irrigation at 42-day intervals. The slower growth, lower shoot: root ratio, and greater specific mass of lamina of black maple indicate this species has a greater capacity to withstand drought than sugar maple.