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Yaser Hassan Dewir, Abdulhakim A. Aldubai, Salah El-Hendawy, Abdullah A. Alsadon, Mayada Kadry Seliem, and Yougasphree Naidoo

used to propagate this species. The aim of this study was to develop in vitro propagation of C. erectus through axillary shoot proliferation. Materials and Methods Plant material, surface disinfection, and culture establishment. Shoot tips, 3–5 cm

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Choun-Sea Lin, Krishnan Kalpana, Wei-Chin Chang, and Na-Sheng Lin

shoots proliferation ( Kapoor and Rao, 2006 ; Nadgauda et al., 1990 ; Sood et al., 2002 ). However, it is very difficult to obtain bamboo reproductive tissues in the field. Lin and Chang (1998) used field-grown vegetative shoot meristems to induce

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Maria Luiza De Oliveira, James G. Thomson, and Ed Stover

juvenility. When a highly desirable rootstock or scion is introduced, the material available for propagation is often limited. Axillary shoot proliferation through tissue culture is an alternative propagation method that increases availability of material in

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Xiuli Shen, William S. Castle, and Frederick G. Gmitter Jr

tissues from mature male trees. We have established a protocol for micropropagation of a Casuarina hybrid ( C. equisetifolia L. × C. glauca Sieber ex Spreng) using epicotyl explants excised from seeds germinated in vitro. Shoot proliferation was

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Dennis P. Stimart, John C. Mather, and Kenneth R. Schroeder

Expanding shoot tips of Pulmonaria `Roy Davidson' and Pulmonaria saccharata `Margery Fish' were cultured in vitro on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium containing BA to establish proliferating cultures for use in comparing BA concentrations on shoot proliferation and rooting. The optimum level for shoot proliferation was 8.8 μm BA. Greatest rooting was on medium without BA. Genotype and time in culture influenced shoot and root counts. Chemical names used: N6-benzyladenine (BA)

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Karim H. Al-Juboory

Shoot proliferation of Gardenia jasminoides was achieved from cultured shoot tips on Nitsch and Nitsch medium supplemented with different levels (0.0–0.6 mg·L–1) of zeatin, BAP, BA, TDZ, and kinetin. Zeatin proved to be the most effective cytokinin for stimulating shoot proliferation. Shoot length obtained with zeatin was shorter than with other cytokinins and shoot leaves were narrower. Shoot tips were cultured on Nitsch and Nitsch medium supplemented with BA at 4.0 mg·L–1 combined with IAA at 0.0–0.2 mg·L–1. The results indicated that BA at 4.0 mg·L–1 with 0.1 IAA produced greater shoot proliferation. Plantlets regenerated in vitro were then transferred to a mixture of 1 peat: 1 perlite: 1 soil and acclimatized for potting. Our results show that micropropagation of Gardenia has high potential for use in commercial industry.

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F.A. Hammerschlag, R.H. Zimmerman, and A.C. Smigocki

`McIntosh' apple shoots were inoculated in vitro with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain tms328::Tn5 (tms) carrying a functional cytokinin gene. Callus tissue, removed from the infected stems, produced shoots on shoot proliferation medium. After three subcultures, axillary shoot production from a tms-infected putative transformant was eight times that of controls. Subsequent shoot production on three different levels of BA (3, 6 and 10 uM) was significantly greater than from controls on all levels of BA. PCR analysis of putative transformants revealed an expected 503 bp DNA fragment corresponding to the amplified portion of the cytokinin gene. After 6 months of in vitro propagation, proliferation rates of shoots obtained from the original transformants were similar to the controls and the expected PCR fragment of 503 bp could only be detected by Southern analysis. Even though the T-DNA appears to be lost from the apple genome, the data suggest that the tms strain may be useful in co-infection experiments to induce shoot formation, thus avoiding difficult regeneration procedures.

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Karim H. Al-Juboory and Jabar H. Al-Niami

Thidiazuron (TDZ) and benzylamino purine stimulated shoot proliferation on shoot tip explants of wild apple (Malus domestica Borkh) when incorporated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium at concentrations of 1.0–10 μm. Shoot numbers obtained with TDZ were greater than the number produced when using BA in the medium but the shoots were shorter than with BA. Increasing TDZ levels increased shoot proliferation with 10 μm. Apple shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium with 2.0 mg·L–1 NAA and then transferred to a mixture of 1 peat: 1 perlite: 1 soil and acclimatized for potting.

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Masanori Kadota and Yoshiji Niimi

We investigated the influence of sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose, lactose, and mannitol carbon sources at various concentrations on shoot proliferation, hyperhydricity and rooting of pear. Shoot tips were cultured in woody plant medium (Lloyd and McCown, 1981) containing 11.0 μm 6-benzyladenine, 0.5 μm indole-3-butyric acid, 0.8% (w/v) agar and 30, 60, or 120 mm of each of seven carbon sources for eight weeks. Sorbitol at 60 mm was the most effective carbon source for shoot proliferation. Using 30 mm sorbital and 30 and 120 mm sucrose resulted in a high number of hyperhydric explants. Shoots rooted with 60 mm glucose, sucrose and sorbitol in media; media with sucrose resulting in the highest rooting frequency, root number and root length. Shoots failed to root when fructose, lactose, maltose, or mannitol were used.

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Dennis P. Stimart and John C. Mather

Actively growing shoots from Pulmonaria L. `Roy Davidson' were cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog medium containing benzyladenine (BA) to establish proliferating cultures. BA at 0, 0.4, 0.8, 4.4, 8.8, and 44.4 μm was compared for shoot proliferation and rooting response. Shoot count was highest on 8.8 μm BA with root count highest on 0 or 0.4 μm BA. Subculture 4 weeks later of shoots to the same treatments resulted in highest shoot counts on 44.4 μm BA. Optimum level for micropropagation was 8.8 or 44.4 μm BA. Greatest rooting was at 0 or 0.4 μm BA.