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Jong-Goo Kang and Marc W. van Iersel

To evaluate the effects of nutrient concentration and pH of the fertilizer solution on growth and nutrient uptake of salvia (Salvia splendens F. Sellow ex Roem. & Schult. `Scarlet Sage'), we grew plants with five different concentrations of Hoagland nutrient solution [0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0× full strength; electrical conductivity (EC) of 0.4, 0.7, 1.1, 2.0, and 3.7 dS·m-1, respectively]. In a concurrent experiment, plants were subirrigated with modified Hoagland solution at 0.5× concentration and one of five solution pH values: 4.4, 5.4, 6.4, 7.2, and 8.0. Shoot and total dry weight and leaf area increased greatly with increasing nutrient solution concentrations from 0.125 to 1.0×, while leaf photosynthesis (Pn), transpiration, and stomatal conductance decreased with increasing nutrient solution concentrations. Treatment effects on growth apparently were caused by changes in carbon allocation within the plants. Shoot: root ratio and leaf area ratio increased with increasing fertilizer concentration. Plants flowered 8 days later at low concentrations of nutrient solution than at high concentrations. Shoot tissue concentrations of N, P, K, and B increased, while C, Al, Mo, and Na decreased with increasing concentration of the nutrient solution. The pH of the nutrient solution had no effect on the growth or gas exchange of the plants, while its effects on nutrient concentration in the shoot tissue generally were smaller than those of fertilizer concentration. These results indicate that 1.0 to 2.0× concentrations of Hoagland solution result in maximum growth, apparently because the plants produce leaf area more efficiently at high fertilizer concentrations.

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Jaime Barros da Silva Filho, Paulo Cezar Rezende Fontes, Paulo Roberto Cecon, Jorge F.S. Ferreira, Milton E. McGiffen Jr., and Jonathan F. Montgomery

M . Additionally, the shoot:root ratio was calculated according to the formula: S H : R R = S H D M R D M , where BP organ = biomass partitioned to the organ; DM organ = dry matter of the organ; TODM = total dry matter; SH:R R = shoot:root

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Chenping Xu and Beiquan Mou

ratio. The treatment of 5Co significantly increased leaf DW ( Table 2 ), irrigation WUE and shoot:root ratio, and decreased shoot DW:FW ratio, compared with control. Table 2. Effects of composted cattle manure or cotton burr as soil amendments on spinach

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Rafael Urrea-López, Rocío I. Díaz de la Garza, and Juan I. Valiente-Banuet

treatment. On the other hand, the shoot:root ratio showed a significant reduction in the low N and low P treatments ( Table 3 ). Fruit yield, measured as the number of fruits and biomass per plant, was only significantly reduced when plants were exposed to

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Nicolas Gruyer, Martine Dorais, Gérald J. Zagury, and Beatrix W. Alsanius

inoculation treatments on plant development, the leaf area ratio [LAR (i.e., leaf area per unit of the whole plant dry biomass), the specific leaf weight [SLW (i.e., leaf weight per unit of leaf area)], and the shoot:root ratio were calculated. Chl a

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Elvia Hernández-Gómez, Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Ana M. Castillo-González, María T. Colinas-León, Donita L. Cartmill, Andrew D. Cartmill, and R. Hugo Lira-Saldívar

area ( Table 1 ), leaf DM ( Table 1 ), shoot DM ( Table 2 ), and the shoot:root ratio ( Table 2 ) when NH 4 + was 50% or greater, 75%, 50% or greater, and 25% or greater, respectively, whereas root DM ( Table 2 ) increased when NH 4 + was 25% to 50

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Carlos Vinicius Garcia Barreto, Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Flávio Bussmeyer Arruda, and Roberto Testezlaf

, P = 0.0057). Total dry mass in T1 was 64% higher than T3 and 26% higher than T2. Fig. 2. Leaf ( A ), stem ( B ), root ( C ), and total ( D ) dry mass, shoot/root ratio ( E ), and leaf/whole plant ratio ( F ) of Rangpur lime at 36, 55, 75, and 90 d

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William R. Graves

Growth, dry-matter partitioning, and specific mass of lamina of black maple (Acer nigrum Michx.f.) and sugar maple (A. saccharum Marsh.) irrigated at 10-, 26-, and 42-day intervals were compared. Total dry mass, stem length, and surface area of lamina were greater for sugar maple than for black maple for plants irrigated every 10 days. Reducing irrigation frequency curtailed growth of both species, but the reduction was greater for sugar maple than for black maple. The shoot: root ratio was lower for black maple than for sugar maple and was reduced by drought in both species, particularly among plants irrigated every 26 days. Specific mass of lamina increased as plants aged, was greater for black maple than for sugar maple, and decreased in response to irrigation at 42-day intervals. The slower growth, lower shoot: root ratio, and greater specific mass of lamina of black maple indicate this species has a greater capacity to withstand drought than sugar maple.

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William R. Grave

Differences in native habitat and leaf morphological traits have prompted speculation that black maple (Acer nigrum Michx.f.) is more drought resistant than sugar maple (A. saccharum Marsh.). In this study, growth of potted seedlings of the two species irrigated at 10-, 26-, or 42-day intervals was compared. For plants irrigated most frequently, dry mass, shoot: root ratio, stem length, and surface area of lamina were greater for sugar maple than black maple. The impact of drought was more pronounced in sugar maple than in black maple, causing reductions in stem length of ≈ 60% in sugar maple and ≈ 30% in black maple. Specific mass of lamina tended to be greater for black maple than sugar maple, particularly after drought, and it increased over time in both species. The slower growth, lower shoot: root ratio, and greater specific mass of lamina of black maple indicate. it is more drought resistant than sugar maple.

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Raul I. Cabrera and Diana Devereaux

Ilex opaca and Lagerstroemia indica plants were grown over 9 months using complete nutrient solutions differing in N concentration [(N)A: 15, 30, 60, 120, 210 and 300 mg·L–1]. Biomass production increased as (N)A were raised from 15 to 60 mg·L–1, but was depressed by higher concentrations. Increases in (N)A produced higher shoot: root ratios. Maximum leaf N concentration was observed at 60 mg·L–1, with similar values at higher (N)A. Plant survival, establishment and performance was evaluated over 15 weeks following transplant (15 WAT) to a landscape with minimum management conditions. Despite the initial significant differences in growth, shoot: root ratios and plant N status, plant establishment was not affected following transplant. Plant characteristics changed significantly over time, and by 15 WAT, all of the measured variables were statistically the same across all treatments. Flowering was, however, delayed over several weeks for Lagerstroemia indica plants grown at the higher (N)A. Analysis of these results indicate that plant production under relatively low N levels in the nursery maximizes N fertilizer use efficiency without affecting landscape establishment and performance.