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L. Eric Hinesley and Scott A. Derby

We thank Jeff Owen (N.C. Coop. Extension Serv.) for help in installation; Don Tucker (Ashe Co., N.C.) who kindly allowed us to use his Christmas trees and helped in establishment and shearing; Jerry Washington (Alleghany County Coop

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Chris A. Martin, Sean A. Whitcomb, and Jean C. Stutz

Pruning is an integral management practice for controlling growth of woody shrubs in urban landscapes. In arid cities such as Phoenix, AZ, the practice of frequent shearing is often used to train shrubs into geometric shapes as a result of a

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Alexander R. Kowalewski, John N. Rogers III, James R. Crum, and Jeffrey C. Dunne

objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of cumulative sand topdressing rates, over a compacted sandy loam, on the fall wear tolerance and surface shear strength of a cool-season turfgrass stand. The initial hypothesis of this research was that

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Karl Guillard, Richard J.M. Fitzpatrick, and Holly Burdett

Quantitative measurement of sod strength has been reported previously in the literature and is typically related to the force required to shear a strip of sod into two separate pieces. Several devices have been designed to quantitatively measure sod

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Daniel F. Warnock

Greenhouse production of rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) as small potted Christmas-tree topiaries for holiday sales have become necessary for many companies marketing to large retail outlets. Topiaries must be sheared multiple times to obtain an acceptable Christmas-tree shape. Most production greenhouses use hand pruning shears or hand-held cordless grass shears to shape topiaries free hand or with the aid of a template. Crop size and uniformity can vary with these shearing methods. To create a more uniform rosemary Christmastree topiary for cultivar evaluations, a mechanical shearing device constructed from over-the-counter parts was developed at the University of Illinois. A detailed description of the design and construction of this mechanical shearing device is presented in this report.

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L. Eric Hinesley and Scott A. Derby

Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] Christmas trees were sheared once annually over a 4-year period using fixed schedules ranging from July to March. Shearng in July reduced potential growth of the upper crown by 38%; when done in October or March, the reduction was about 50%. Length, dry weight, and one-sided area of individual needles were smallest on nonsheared trees, and increased to maximum values on trees sheared in March. In the upper crown (top three internodes), trees sheared in July were 16% to 33% heavier than those sheared in August or later. Dry matter in the upper crown was 30% foliage and 70% woody material. Sixty-one percent of the biomass in the upper crown was branches for trees sheared in July, compared to 55% for October. In the upper crown, foliage comprised about 50% of the branch dry weight (all treatments); in 3-year-old branches, it was 54% to 58%. Among treatments, shearing in July caused the smallest reduction of potential growth and yielded the largest and heaviest branches with significantly more foliage and lateral shoots, all of which would be expected to improve crown density and commercial value. October was the least favorable time to shear.

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J. Raymond Kessler Jr. and Gary J. Keever

Vegetative cuttings of Coreopsis verticillata `Moonbeam' were rooted under intermittent mist, pinched, and potted into 10-cm pots in a greenhouse. Plants were sheared to 6.5 cm above the pot rim 2 weeks after potting and given foliar sprays of daminozide at 0, 2550, 5100, or 7650 mg·L-1 or flurprimidol at 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg·L-1. Night-break lighting to provide long photoperiods was started the day of shearing. Growth retardants were applied at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 days after shearing. Daminozide reduced shoot height, growth index, and lateral shoot length compared to the control by 69.3%, 69.2%, and 70.0%, respectively, while increasing quality rating by 67.3% and time to flower by 8 days at 5100 and 7650 mg·L-1. Response surface regression predicted that minimum plant size and maximum quality rating occurred when growth retardants were applied 5.7 to 8.3 days after shearing. Application timing had no effect on responses to flurprimidol. Shoot height, growth index, and lateral shoot length decreased quadratically with increasing rate while quality rating only improved compared to control. Flurprimidol did not cause a flowering delay.

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Y. Wang, Y. Liu, P. He, O. Lamikanra, and J. Lu

Resistance to grape anthracnose [Elsinoë ampelina (de Bary) Shear] was evaluated in 13 known Vitis species and five taxonomically undescribed grapes native to China. One hundred and eight clones of Chinese Vitis species were tested under field conditions between 1990 and 1992. Berry infection did not occur in these species. Leaves displayed strong resistance to anthracnose, although intraspecific variations were observed. There was no relationship between anthracnose resistance and geographical origin of the species. Results from this study indicate that oriental grape species are useful for disease-resistance breeding.

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Ryan N. Contreras and Kimberly Shearer

reported. Clearly, for such an ecologically and economically important species, this is a significant gap in our scientific knowledge. Genome size data have been shown to reflect taxonomic relationships in Cornaceae ( Shearer and Ranney, 2013 ) while also

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Nithiya Rattanapanone, Yuen Lee, Tianxia Wu, and Alley E. Watada

The marketable period of fresh-cut `Tommy Atkins' and `Kent' mango cubes was 3 to 5 days at 10 °C and 5 to 8 days at 5 °C. The marketable period was extended by 1 to 2 days when cubes were held in a 4 kPa O2 + 10 kPa CO2 or 2 kPa O2 + 10 kPa CO2 (balance N2) atmospheres, depending on cultivar and temperature. Variations in texture (shear force), pH, and soluble solids were greater among cubes from different mango lots than among cubes held at different temperatures or atmospheres. Yeast count increased more with time than did the total mesophilic aerobic count, and the increase was less under controlled atmosphere (CA) than in air at 10 °C. The CA was beneficial in maintaining quality of the cubes; however, low temperature was more effective than CA.