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Hui-Shan Chan, Hui-Ying Chu, and Mei-Fang Chen

, 2006 ), and that image is determined by shaping. Shaping is a key determinant of the appeal of a floral product because of its large effects on the purchase intention and satisfaction of the consumer ( Schmitt and Simonson, 1997 ). For example, large

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Andrew P. Wycislo, John R. Clark, and Douglas E. Karcher

the University of Illinois in 1968 ( Clark, 1997 ). This cultivar is unique for its elongated berry shape ( Clark, 2003 ). Dr. Moore believed that the elongated shape was attractive in a table grape, so he continued to intercross selections (J.N. Moore

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Maria Jose Gonzalo, Marin Talbot Brewer, Claire Anderson, David Sullivan, Simon Gray, and Esther van der Knaap

The domestication and breeding of cultivated tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) resulted in a diverse collection of varieties that differ in fruit shape and size ( Paran and van der Knaap, 2007 ). Tomato is an excellent model to use to gain

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Todd W. Wert, Jeffrey G. Williamson, José X. Chaparro, E. Paul Miller, and Robert E. Rouse

The climate where fruit is grown can affect many different aspects of growth and development, including shape. Several reports have been published for fruit other than peaches concerning climatic and temperature effects on fruit shape. In general

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A. Morales-Sillero, R. Jiménez, J.E. Fernández, A. Troncoso, and L. Rejano

the recognized nutritional value of the Mediterranean diet ( Patumi et al., 2002 ). The consumer and the processing industry request fruits with good size, proper shape, high pulp/stone ratio, good texture and color, and ease in releasing the pit

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Zhanao Deng, Fahrettin Goktepe, and Brent K. Harbaugh

asexually propagated through tuber division ( Wilfret, 1993 ). The ornamental value of caladium in the container or in the landscape depends, to a large extent, on its leaf characteristics, including leaf shape, color, and color pattern. Improving these

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Charlie L. Rohwer

canopy for shading weed seedlings ( Colquhoun et al., 2020 ). However, increased population causes shorter taproots ( Thompson, 1969 ). Carrot varieties can be classified by their general shape and use characteristics. For example, Chantenay carrots are

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Eric B. Bish, Daniel J. Cantliffe, and Craig K. Chandler

Bare-root strawberry transplants have been conventionally used for establishment of strawberry fruiting fields. These bare-root transplants have variability in vegetative vigor that results in irregular flowering patterns. We have been experimenting with a containerized transplant system to produce uniform transplants. Increasing transplant container volume by increasing perimeter, rather than depth, has resulted in increased plant size, but also increases transplant production costs. This study evaluated three container perimeters (17, 25, 32 cm) and three container shapes (circular, elliptical, and biconvex) such that different cell perimeters had the same greatest diameter. All containers had a depth of 3.5 cm. Root imaging analysis (MacRHIZOTM) was used to measure root growth in the container as well as root growth 3 and 6 weeks after transplanting. Increasing container perimeter led to increased plant growth before and after transplanting, but did not affect fruit production. Transplant container shape did not significantly alter plant growth or fruit production. Biconvex and elliptical containers required 25% and 15% less surface area, respectively. Therefore, a biconvex shaped container can be used to increase plant density during transplant propagation, decreasing surface area needed and reducing production costs.

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Zhe Cao, Shunzhao Sui, Qian Yang, and Zhanao Deng

hybridizations between elite cultivars or breeding lines. In recent years, significant efforts have been made to understand the mode of inheritance of several important caladium foliar traits, including leaf shape, main vein color, leaf spotting, and leaf

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Andrew P. Wycislo, Douglas E. Karcher, and John R. Clark

Quantifying fruit shape is challenging, particularly when measurements are made on segregating populations of plants that vary greatly in shape. Objective manual measurements can be performed on small samples of fruit, but this method is not feasible when dealing with larger samples or when shape variations are slight and continuous. Also, subjective rating scales can be utilized, but they are less effective when done by multiple raters due to varying descriptive standards among individuals. Therefore, we have developed a method to analyze digital images containing multiple fruits to characterize fruit shapes. Each segregant of a population of table grapes with parents of significant varying shapes was photographed and analyzed. Image pixels representing fruit were selected and evaluated for area and perimeter, which were subsequently used to calculate a shape factor and compactness value. This was a reasonably simple and quick method for quantifying grape berry shape, giving the researcher valuable phenotypic data in numerical form. This technology should be useful for shape characterizations of other fruits as well.