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Jeffrey C. Dunne, W. Casey Reynolds, Grady L. Miller, Consuelo Arellano, Rick L. Brandenburg, A. Schoeman, Fred H. Yelverton and Susana R. Milla-Lewis

on golf courses, athletic fields, municipalities, and home lawns in North Carolina ( Carrow and Petrovic, 1992 ; DiPaola and Beard, 1992 ). However, it is estimated that 20% to 25% of all turfgrass stands are under some kind of shade, primarily from

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Zi Wei, Peter Jeranyama, Fan Zhang, Carolyn DeMoranville and Harvey J.M. Hou

syndrome in cranberry leaves, the shade effect on the Chl content and photosynthetic activity in cranberry were investigated by spectrometric, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and in vivo Chl fluorescence kinetics. Materials and Methods

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Bradley S. Sladek, Gerald M. Henry and Dick L. Auld

Establishing turfgrass in shaded environments can create a unique maintenance challenge. Approximately 20% to 25% of all turfgrasses are grown in low light intensity environments ( Beard, 1973 ). Reductions in light intensity may decrease the

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Christian M. Baldwin, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Hong Luo and Joe E. Toler

, creeping bentgrass putting greens face many environmental stresses and agronomic challenges year round, including shade. Cool-season turfgrass decline in severe shade is partially attributed to increased disease pressure ( Beard, 1965 , 1969 ; Vargas and

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Aneta K. Studzinska, David S. Gardner, James D. Metzger, David Shetlar, Robert Harriman and T. Karl Danneberger

subjected to both natural and artificial (neutral) shade from vegetation and building structures, respectively. While under neutral shade, turfgrasses respond to reduced light intensity; shade under vegetation canopy can reduce light intensity and alter

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Xiaoya Cai, Laurie E. Trenholm, Jason Kruse and Jerry B. Sartain

St. augustinegrass [ Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] is widely used as a warm-season turfgrass. This is one of the most popular turfgrass species used for home lawns throughout the southern United States. St. augustinegrass has better shade

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Anthony L. Witcher, Fulya Baysal-Gurel, Eugene K. Blythe and Donna C. Fare

or white shadecloth compared with plants grown in full sun. Additionally, the container substrate temperature was 6 °F lower under shade compared with full sun. Burrows et al. (2015) also reported greater flowering dogwood growth under different

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David O. Okeyo, Jack D. Fry, Dale J. Bremer, Ambika Chandra, A. Dennis Genovesi and Milton C. Engelke

Zoysiagrass grown under shade on golf courses and in home lawns is slow to recover from injury and declines in quality over time. Tree shade reduces photosynthetically active radiation ( PAR ) resulting in reduced photosynthesis and altered

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Martin P.N. Gent

Shade can be applied over a greenhouse to improve tomato quality. In hot climates, shading a tomato crop increases fruit set and yield. Studies in Egypt suggested a cloth with a 0.4 shade density was optimal; an increase to 0.5 or 0.6 shade

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Ben Wherley, Ambika Chandra, Anthony Genovesi, Mason Kearns, Tim Pepper and Jim Thomas

Shade is a major challenge for turfgrass managers worldwide. The shade environment can be particularly challenging to warm-season turfgrasses, which have inherently higher light compensation points relative to cool-season grasses ( Beard, 1973