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V. Kagan-Zur, D. Yaron-Miron, and Y. Mizrahi

A spontaneous tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) triploid was studied with a view to its commercialization. Fruits induced by auxin contained 50% more DNA and 30% more protein than their diploid counterpart. The fruits were 50% larger than those of the diploid counterpart and were juicy but seedless. All fruit quality characteristics checked (polygalacturonase activity, reducing sugars content, electrical conductivity, pH, titratable acidity, pigment content, and shelf life) were comparable to the diploid except for ethylene evolution rate, which was lower than that of the diploid counterpart, and flavor, which was superior. The line seems suitable for agricultural cultivation.

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Charles E. Barrett, Xin Zhao, Charles A. Sims, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Eric Q. Dreyer, and Zhifeng Gao

Titrino; Metrohm, Herisau, Switzerland). Consumer sensory analyses. Consumer sensory tests were conducted in 2010 and 2011 at the University of Florida Sensory Analysis Laboratory in Gainesville. Fruit were harvested at the breaker stage of development and

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R. Karina Gallardo, Eugene Kupferman, and Ann Colonna

-harvest researchers to help them focus research efforts on quality attributes likely to be responsible for making a product successful in the marketplace. To accomplish the study's objectives, we used data from two sensory tests in which pears under different post

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Jonathan Tong, Cyril Rakovski, and Anuradha Prakash

average of the scores. Sensory consumer affective testing All sensory testing was conducted using ASTM Committee E-18 guidelines ( Chambers and Wolf, 1996 ; Lawless and Heymann, 2010 ; Stone and Sidel, 2004 ). About 80–100 consumers evaluated the fruit

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O. Smith-Kayoae, V.O. Agbeja, A.O. Denton, and A. Aliyu

The development of a natural base for beverage products covers key steps including raw materials identification and sourcing, process development, product testing an market introduction. Agege 1 - a widespread sweet orange cultivar was compared with Parson Brown sweet orange type in the production of concentrated juice (approximate 30° Brix). Yield for Agege 1 was 14-16% while Parson Brown had 9-11% based on the processing modules adopted. Analysis of samples showed 40-110 millgram percent and 125-350 microgram percent for vitamins C and A respectively. Sensory testing revealed that concentrated juice for Agege 1 had superior appearance characteristics particularly in terms of color.

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A. Plotto, A. N. Azarenko, M. R. McDaniel, and J.P. Mattheis

`Gala' apples were harvested at weekly intervals for 6 weeks, refrigerated at 0C, and evaluated by a consumer panel monthly over a 6 month period for overall liking, firmness, sweetness, tartness and flavor intensities. Firmness, titratable acidity and soluble solids concentration were also measured. Initial analysis of sensory data revealed multicollinearity for overall liking, sweetness, and flavor. The five descriptors explained 75 % of the dataset variation in the first two factors. An orthogonal rotation separated overall liking, flavor and sweetness, and firmness and tartness into two independent factors. The distribution of mean scores along these independent factors showed that panelists could perceive changes due to ripening and maturation. The multivariate factor analysis was better than univariate ANOVA at illustrating how apple maturity stages were apparent to untrained panelists. Firmness was the only instrumental variable correlated to firmness ratings in the sensory tests. None of the analytical measurements could explain overall liking.

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Eric Simonne, Robert Boozer, and Amarat Simonne

, Vanessa Drouot, Christy Moore, David Dubois, and Karen Kane for the sensory tests. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement

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Kazuhiro Abe and Takashi Iwata

Concentrations of culture solution in hydroponics were changed for the purpose of improving the quality of herbs. Culture solution containing Ca(NO3)2·4H20:45g. KNO3:36g. MgSO4·7H20:22. 5g. NH4H2PO4:6. 75g, and Fe-EDTA:6. 67g in \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(45{\ell}\) \end{document} water was defined as 1 unit solution.

Japanese honewort (Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk). soup celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce DC.). and parsley grown with 2 unit solution showed higher contents of ascorbic acid(ASA). phenols, free amino acid, and chlorophyll than those grown with 1 unit, but they showed lower yields and shorter shelf lives. Lowering the concentration of solution to 2/3 unit resulted in the increase of yield of peppermint, sage, basil, and perilla (Perilla frutescens Britton) and the decrease of ASA and chlorophyll contents. Shelf lives of berbs with 2/3 unit were longer than those with 1 unit. The smell of herbs tested in this experiment was not affected significantly in sensory test by the change of concentration of solution.

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Xin Zhao, Edward E. Carey, and Fadi M. Aramouni

Consumers of organic food tend to believe that it tastes better than its conventional counterpart. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on sensory analysis of organic food. A consumer taste test was conducted to compare the acceptability of organically and conventionally grown spinach. Spinach samples were collected from organically and conventionally managed plots at the Kansas State University Research and Extension Center, Olathe. One hundred-twenty-two untrained panelists (80 female and 42 male) participated in this consumer study. Fresh and 1-week-old spinach leaves were evaluated by 60 and 62 consumers, respectively, using a 9-point hedonic scale (9 = like extremely, 5 = neither like nor dislike, 1 = dislike extremely). The ANOVA results showed that fresh organic spinach had a higher preference score than corresponding conventional spinach, although not at a significant level (P = 0.1790). For the 1-week-old spinach, the difference diminished, and instead, conventional spinach had a higher preference rating. Among 61 consumers who made comments regarding the sensory evaluation, 29 claimed that organic spinach was more tasty and flavorful; 19 consumers thought conventional spinach was better; 13 consumers could not tell the difference. Even though this consumer study did not reveal significant differences in consumer preference for organic vs. conventional spinach, further well-designed sensory tests are warranted given the trends indicated in our study. Assessment of sensory attributes of organic vegetables after storage also deserves further attention. Ideally, both consumer tests and descriptive analysis using trained panelists will be considered.

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Marcela Miranda, Xiuxiu Sun, Christopher Ference, Anne Plotto, Jinhe Bai, David Wood, Odílio Benedito Garrido Assis, Marcos David Ferreira, and Elizabeth Baldwin

Coatings are generally applied to fruit as microemulsions, but nanoemulsions are still experimental. ‘Nova’ mandarins (Citrus reticulata) were coated with shellac or carnauba (Copernica cerifera) microemulsions or an experimental carnauba nanoemulsion; these were compared with an uncoated control during storage for 7 days at 20 °C. Coatings were also tested on ‘Unique’ tangors (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) stored for 14 days at 10 °C followed by a simulated marketing period of 7 days at 20 °C. Fruit quality evaluations included weight loss, gloss, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), pH, SS/TA ratio, internal CO2, O2, fruit juice ethanol, and other aroma volatile content. Sensory visual shine and tangerine (C. reticulata) flavor rank tests after storage were conducted, followed by an off-flavor rating. The carnauba waxes resulted in less weight loss compared with the uncoated control and shellac coating during both experiments. There were no differences in gloss measurements of ‘Nova’ mandarins; however, shellac-coated fruit ranked highest for shine in a sensory test. For ‘Unique’ tangors, initially, shellac showed the highest gloss (shine) measurement; however, at the end of storage, the nanoemulsion exhibited the highest gloss, although it was not different from that of the microemulsion. Similarly, after storage, the nanoemulsion ranked highest for visual shine, although it was not different from that of the microemulsion. There were only minor differences in SS, TA, pH, and SS/TA among treatments. The internal CO2 gas concentration and juice ethanol content generally increased and internal O2 decreased during storage. The highest levels of CO2 and ethanol were found for the shellac treatment, as was the lowest O2, indicating anaerobic respiration. There were only minor differences among the other coating treatments; however, they were only sometimes different from those of the control, which generally had the highest O2, lowest CO2, and lowest ethanol. Shellac and the carnauba microemulsion also altered the volatile profile more than the control and the nanoemulsion did, especially for ‘Unique’ tangors. For ‘Unique’ tangors, the control and nanoemulsion ranked highest for tangerine flavor and had the least off-flavor at the end of storage. Among the coatings tested, the carnauba emulsions demonstrated less water loss, imparted more sustainable gloss, and caused less ethanol production than shellac, with the nanoemulsion exhibiting higher gloss measurements, less modifications of the atmosphere and volatile profile, and, consequently, better flavor compared with the microemulsion.