* values for the two experiments were 20.7 ± 0.65 and 29.4 ± 0.46. The sensory quality of the tomato fruit was evaluated by the consumer panel in terms of aroma liking, overall liking, texture liking, and flavor liking. Washed and dried tomatoes were cut
Angelos I. Deltsidis, Charles A. Sims and Jeffrey K. Brecht
Elizabeth Mitcham, William Biasi, Mark Gaskell, Ben Faber and Ramiro Lobo
Blueberry fruit were harvested at commercial maturity from variety trials and shipped overnight to UC Davis. Fruit quality was evaluated upon receipt and after 6 and 20 days of cold storage at 0.5 °C in air shelf life. Firmness, external color, soluble solids, and titratable acidity were measured. Sensory evaluations were conducted by trained tasters to rate the blueberries for crispness, mealiness, sweetness, tartness, blueberry flavor, and off-flavors at harvest and again after 21 days of storage. Many of the blueberries increased in firmness during cold storage. Firmness at harvest tended to be softer in `Santa Fe' and `Jewel' and firmer in `Star'. Sensory data also found `Sharpblue' and `Southmoon' to be more firm; however the objective measurements did not agree. Overall, `Saphire' was low in sugars and acids, and `Jewell' and `Star' were high in acids. `Misty' and `Sharpblue' were consistently high in sugars and acids. Overall objective fruit quality ratings were highest for `Misty', `Sharpblue', and `Southmoon', and lowest for `Santa Fe'. Blueberry flavor was rated highest in `Jewell', `Star', and `Sharpblue', and lowest in `Santa Fe', `Saphire', `Misty', and `Emerald'. These data indicate that blueberry flavor may be closely tied to acid content, as most of the high-flavor varieties had high acid and many of the low-flavor varieties had low acid. Over 3 years, the varieties consistently rated highest for overall objective quality were `Misty' and `Southmoon'. `Star' was rated high for overall quality in 2 years and moderate in 1. `Jewell', `Star', and `Sharpblue' were rated highest in flavor. `Santa Fe' was ranked low in flavor quality in 2 out of 3 years. Selection of variety appears to have a strong influence on the sensory quality of the blueberries marketed.
T.J. Radovich, C.G. Cavaletto and H.R. Valenzuela
The sensory quality of fresh basil (cv. Sweet Italian) was evaluated to determine if compost or mineral fertilizer applications affected flavor and aroma intensity. The four treatments, arranged in a randomized complete-block design with three replications, were: compost applied at 50 t·ha–1; compost applied at 200 t·ha–1; mineral N applied at 110 kg·ha–1; and a control receiving no amendment. Leaves from the first four nodes of young shoots were used in the evaluation. Twelve trained panel members scored samples of three leaves from each treatment for aroma and flavor intensity using a linear scale, converted to a scale of 1–10 where 1 = much less intense than a reference sample (control), and 10 = much more intense than the reference. No significant difference between treatments was found in flavor intensity. Significant difference between treatments in aroma intensity was found. Aroma scores were highest in samples from the compost and synthetic fertilizer treatments, and lowest in those from the control. Scores for aroma from the compost and synthetic fertilizer treatments were similar to each other. Aroma intensity increased with increased rate of compost application. No significant correlation was found between aroma intensity and plant tissue N content, sap NO3 – levels, or yield.
Murray Clayton, William V. Biasi, I. Tayfun Agar, Stephen M. Southwick and Elizabeth J. Mitcham
`Bing' sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) trees were treated with hydrogen cyanamide (CH2N2) or calcium ammonium nitrate (CaNH4NO3) during dormancy, or gibberellic acid (GA3) 26 days before harvest during three consecutive years. Fruit were evaluated at harvest for sensory taste quality using twenty trained panelists sampling for firmness, sweetness, tartness, and cherry flavor. Nondestructive instrumental firmness preceded destructive sensory firmness on the same untreated and GA3-treated cherries in one year when used as a supplementary evaluation. Sensory firmness was consistently higher in GA3 fruit and to a lesser extent in CH2N2 fruit than in CaNH4NO3 and untreated fruit. Instrumental firmness of GA3 fruit did not increase significantly compared with untreated fruit yet instrumental firmness of each treatment correlated relatively well with perceived sensory firmness. Sensory sweetness and cherry flavor scored very similarly, yet both attributes simultaneously varied between treatments across the years. Perceived sensory tartness of treated fruit was variable among years; yet, on average, was rated among treated and untreated fruit as similar. Under the assumption that elevated sensory firmness, sweetness, and cherry flavor intensity reflects improved sweet cherry quality, GA3 fruit were rated of higher quality than untreated fruit given their increased firmness and similar or occasionally elevated sweetness and cherry flavor intensity. CH2N2 fruit maintained quality similar to that of untreated fruit, despite often having marginally higher firmness, due to similar or reduced ratings for sweetness and cherry flavor intensity. Notwithstanding similar firmness between CaNH4NO3 and untreated cherries, sensory quality of CaNH4NO3-treated cherries was reduced due to their often-diminished levels of perceived sweetness and cherry flavor.
Robert A. Saftner, Judith A. Abbott, William S. Conway, Cynthia L. Barden and Bryan T. Vinyard
Fruit quality, sensory characteristics, and volatiles produced by 'Gala' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) were characterized following regular atmosphere (RA) storage without and with a prestorage heat treatment (38 °C for 4 days) or controlled atmosphere (CA) storage at 0 and 2 °C for 0 to 6 months plus 7-day shelf life at 20 °C. Static CA conditions were 0.7 kPa O2 plus 1.0 kPa CO2, 1.0 kPa O2 plus 1.0 kPa CO2, and 1.5 kPa O2 plus 2.5 kPa CO2. Most of the more abundant volatiles were esters; the rest were alcohols, an aldehyde, a ketone, and an aryl ether. Respiration and ethylene production rates, internal atmospheres of CO2 and ethylene, and volatile levels were reduced following CA storage compared with RA storage without and with a prestorage heat treatment. Magness-Taylor and compression firmness, titratable acidity, and sensory scores for firmness, sourness, apple-fruity flavor, and overall acceptability were higher for CA-than for RA-stored fruit. Soluble solids content and sensory scores for sweetness were similar among all treatments. Quality and sensory characteristics were generally similar in heated and nonheated RA-stored fruit, and between 0 and 2 °C in CA- and RA-stored fruit. While one CA regime had a higher CO2 concentration than the others tested, CA effects on quality and sensory characteristics were generally more pronounced at the lower O2 levels. Quality characteristics declined between 2 and 4 months storage. The results indicate that short-term CA storage can maintain instrumental and sensory quality of 'Gala' apples.
Ambani R. Mudau, Puffy Soundy, Hintsa T. Araya and Fhatuwani N. Mudau
recorded were gas composition, weight loss, sensory quality, minerals and trace elements (Mg, Fe, and Zn), flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Weight loss. Baby spinach leaves were weighed using a digital electronic balance [Model MK-500C, DENVER
Xavier Vallverdu, Joan Girona, Gemma Echeverria, Jordi Marsal, M. Hossein Behboudian and Gerardo Lopez
for reaching firm conclusions about sensory quality and consumers’ perception of peach grown under DI. To the best of our knowledge, this information does not exist for any deciduous fruit crop including peach. In this research, DI was applied during
Ambani R. Mudau, Puffy Soundy and Fhatuwani N. Mudau
: weight loss, morphological quality (leaf length, petiole length, and leaf width), leaf chlorophyll, microenvironment analysis, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and sensory quality (overall acceptance, flavor/taste, and odor). Descriptions on the
Abdulla A. Alsadon
Six butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars-`Sorbon' (L2130), `Donatan' (L2694), `Jessy', `Aramir', `Florian', and `Suzan'-were grown in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Following harvest and yield assessment, individual heads from each cultivar were selected randomly for subjective sensory evaluation. Among the quality attributes evaluated were color, appearance, head firmness, texture, flavor, and freedom from defects. Attributes were highly correlated with overall quality for each cultivar. `Florian' attributes were ranked high by members of an evaluation panel. In addition, `Florian' plants were among the highest yielding cultivars. `Florian' is recommended for its yield and quality features.
Annette Wszelaki, Jeannine Delwiche, Sonia Walker, Rachel Liggett, Joseph Scheerens and Matthew Kleinhenz
Sensory evaluations (triangle tests) were used to determine if panelists could distinguish, by tasting, cooked wedges of potatoes grown organically, either with or without compost, and conventionally. Mineral and glycoalkaloid analyses of tuber skin and flesh were also conducted. When the skin remained on the potatoes, panelists detected differences between conventional potatoes and organic potatoes, regardless of soil treatment. However, they did not distinguish between organic treatments (±compost) when samples contained skin or between any treatments if wedges were peeled prior to preparation. Glycoalkaloid levels tended to be higher in organic potatoes. In tuber skin and flesh, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, and copper concentrations were also significantly higher in the organic treatments, while iron and manganese concentrations were higher in the skin of conventionally grown potatoes.