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Ajay Nair, Donglin Zhang, John Smagula, and Dongyan Hu

experiment. Semihardwood cuttings of Stewartia pseudocamellia were taken from a mature tree at the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University in Jamaica Plain, MA, on 23 June 2002. All new growth was included and the cutting length ranged from 6 to 15 cm

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Jenny B. Ryals, Patricia R. Knight, and Eric T. Stafne

Illinois), purple passion fruit ( P. edulis f. edulis ), yellow passion fruit ( P. edulis f. flavicarpa ), sweet calabash ( P. maliformis ), sweet granadilla ( P. ligularis ), and water lemon ( P. laurifolia ). Semihardwood, medial two-node cuttings

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A.J. Permit Jr. and J.B. Aitken

A randomized complete block experiment (factorially arranged) with Ilex x attenuata `Foster II' semi-hardwood cuttings was conducted to test the efficacy on rooting of three IBA carriers (water, talc, and a hydrophilic gel--“Water Grabber”). Three IBA concentrations (0, 4000, 8000 ppm) and three rooting medium temperatures [ambient (13.3 - 20.6), 18.3, and 23.9° C] also were employed. Cuttings were harvested at 8 and 15 wk after sticking under intermittent mist. Rooting did not vary with talc IBA concentration. The 29.3° C rooting medium increased stem (1.24 cm, basal)/root dry weight (g) during the first 8 wk but not at 15 wk. More rooting occurred at 8 wk with 4000 ppm IBA gel treatment than with talc, with reduced rooting at 8000 ppm IBA (gel). Increased rooting (8, 15 wk) occurred with 4000 ppm IBA with water and gel carriers; however, rooting was less (below the 4000 ppm IBA levels) with 8000 ppm IBA. Overall, water and gel treatments performed about the same.

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A.R. Talaie and M. Ramazani Malakroodi

Propagation testing of semi-hardwood olive cuttings was conducted to ensure adequate production to meet Iranian needs. `Clonavis', `Sevillana', and `Manzanilla' were selected to investigate their rooting situations. Three variables (cultivar, differential concentrations of IBA, and vertical cut in the basal end of the cuttings) were considered in a randomized complete-block factorial design test with four replications with 10 cuttings in each treatment. Cuttings 10 to 15 cm long and 0.5 to 1.5 cm in diameter were taken from each cultivar. IBA (0, 2000, 3000, and 4000 ppm) was used in two vertical cuts in basal end of half of the cuttings. Statistical analysis of the rooting capability differed for the three cultivars. `Sevillana' and `Clovanis' rooted better than `Manzanilla'. IBA at 3000 ppm resulted in the highest rooting percentage in all cultivars. The maximum number of roots was obtained with IBA at 4000 ppm in roots that had the basal cuts. Basal end cuts affected considerably the rooting percentage and number of roots, but had no effect on increased root length.

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Christopher B. Cerveny and James L. Gibson

Bougainvillea glabra is a tropical species with reportedly difficulty to propagate. Previous research has shown the importance of talc-based rooting hormones when propagating Bougainvillea, yet little has been published on the efficacy of liquid-based formulations. Therefore, our objective was to determine the optimum concentration of indolebutyric acid potassium salt (KIBA) needed to effectively root semi-hardwood stem cuttings of Bougainvillea `California Gold' and `Helen Johnson'. Sub-terminal cuttings measuring 6.5 cm were harvested from stock plants of Bougainvillea on 3-week intervals from 6 June to 8 Aug. and repeated 6 Sept. to 8 Nov. 2005. Cuttings were dipped 0.5 cm in a solution of 0, 1500, 3000, or 6000 mg·L-1 KIBA or in a 1500-mg·L-1 solution containing indolebutyric acid (IBA) 1%: napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 0.5% and propagated under mist. Cuttings were evaluated for percent survival, rooting quality (1 = poor; 5 = best), and number of primary and lateral roots 5 weeks after planting (WAP). Differences in `California Gold' for percent survival, average rank, and number of roots were determined not significant at P ≤ 0.05. However, application of rooting hormone to `Helen Johnson' increased rooting quality, number of primary roots, and number of lateral roots by up to 24%, 53%, and 50%, respectively. Results indicated rooting performance was generally improved with application of KIBA; therefore, cuttings of Bougainvillea may benefit from a 1500-mg·L-1 solution. KIBA was also found to be as effective as the industry standard liquid formulation. Growers will have to consider the availability and cost of KIBA when propagating Bougainvillea.

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Alireza Talaie* and Majid Zohouri

The experiment was carried out to study the effect of IBA hormones on rooting systems of selected local olive genotypes in Kermanshah province, Iran. This work was designed as a factorial experiment in a complete randomized block with three replications and 10 cuttings in each treatment. The effects of IBA hormone concentrations i.e.: 4000, 3000, 2000 and 1000 PPM in three selected local genotypes of bn42, dd9, D1, and Zard genotype as controlled were studied and compared. The results showed that the ultimate root length was obtained in genotypes bn42, D1, and Zard with application of 3000 PPM concentration and average numbers of roots in genotypes of bn42, dd9, and D1 with 4000 PPM concentration were observed. The average of the longest roots was found in genotype bn42, dd9, D1 and Zard with 3000 PPM concentration, and the average of the highest root number in bn42 and Zard with the concentration of 3000 PPM in genotype dd9, and D1 with 4000 PPM concentration. The highest percentage of rhyzogenesis was observed genotypes of bn42 and dd9 with 2000 PPM concentration and in the genotypes D1 and Zard with 4000 PPM concentration. The average root length was increased consequently in genotypes bn42, D1, Zard, and dd9. The sequence of rhyzogenesis percentage was obtained in bn42, Zard, D1, and dd9. Dry weight percentage was also obtained in genotypes bn42, Zard, D1, and dd9, respectively.

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Simone da Costa Mello, Jéssika Angelotti-Mendonça, Lucas Baiochi Riboldi, Luigi Tancredi Campo Dall’Orto, and Eduardo Suguino

. According to Gomes et al. (2002) , guava plants ( Psidium guajava ) have increased rooting in softwood cuttings, whereas in litchi ( Litchi chinensis ), optimal rooting was in semihardwood cuttings ( Carvalho et al., 2005 ). The impact of physiological age

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Andrew R. King, Michael A. Arnold, Douglas F. Welsh, and W. Todd Watson

maturity, cuttings were taken at three times during the year. Softwood cuttings were taken from the College Station site on 16 May 2008 and from the Dallas site on 19 May 2008. Semihardwood cuttings were taken from Dallas on 24 July 2008 and from College

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Bryan J. Peterson, Gregory J.R. Melcher, Ailish K. Scott, Rebecca A. Tkacs, and Andrew J. Chase

catberry from which to obtain softwood or semihardwood stem cuttings in both 2015 and 2016. Stem cuttings of sweetgale were collected from five vigorous, sexually mature plants growing naturally at a wet forest edge in Penobscot County, ME. Stem cuttings of

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Daniel Struve, Francesco Ferrini, Chandra Bellasio, and Alessio Fini

. Successful oak stem cutting propagation protocols use softwood and semihardwood stem cuttings collected from juvenile stock plants, basal dips in relatively high indole butyric acid (IBA) concentrations in combination with various stock plant manipulations