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Seon-Ok Kim, Ji-Eun Jeong, Yun-Ah Oh, Ha-Ram Kim, and Sin-Ae Park

activities ( Fig. 4B ), and the “being relaxed” item scores were significantly higher when performing horticultural and reading activities when compared with the other activities ( Fig. 4C ). Fig. 4. Comparisons of a semantic differential method (SDM) for

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Seon-Ok Kim, Yun-Ah Oh, and Sin-Ae Park

that there were no statistically significant differences in the SDM according to the presence and absence of foliage plants (data not shown). Fig. 7. Results of modified semantic differential method (SDM), according to the presence and absence of

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Ahmad Hassan, Chen Qibing, Jiang Tao, Lv Bing-Yang, Li Nian, Shu Li, Li Yu Tng, Jun Zhuo Li, Shang Guan Ziyue, and Muhammad Sohaib Tahir

tasks according to the semantic differential method. N = 50; mean ± sd ; * P < 0.01, Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Discussion We investigated the stress-reducing effects of 15-min horticultural activity by analyzing the physiological and psychological

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Sin-Ae Park, Chorong Song, Ji-Young Choi, Ki-Cheol Son, and Yoshifumi Miyazaki

The study’s objective was to investigate the effects of foliage plants on prefrontal cortex activity and subjective assessments of psychological relaxation. In a crossover experimental design, 24 male university students in their 20s observed a container with and without foliage plants for 3 minutes while oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex was continuously measured with a portable near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy device. Afterward, subjective evaluations of emotions were obtained via two self-report questionnaires: a modified semantic differential (SD) method and the Profile of Mood State questionnaire (POMS). Oxy-Hb concentration in the right prefrontal cortex was significantly lower in subjects who viewed the foliage plants than in those who did not, indicating a physiologically relaxed state. The subjects also reported in the SD method significantly more positive emotions (e.g., comfortable, natural, and relaxed) associated with viewing the foliage plants. In the POMS, a significant positive effect on psychological relaxation when subjects viewed the foliage plants was shown. Thus, we conclude that foliage plants have both physiological and psychological relaxation effects in males even after only short exposure.

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Hyunju Jo, Susan Rodiek, Eijiro Fujii, Yoshifumi Miyazaki, Bum-Jin Park, and Seoung-Won Ann

Oriental herbs scents based on cerebral blood flow and semantic differential method Environ. Inf. Sci. 21 207 212 Kang, J. Zhang, M. 2010 Semantic differential analysis of the soundscape in urban open public spaces Build. Environ. 45 150 157 Kaplan, R