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A.W. Fleener, C.W. Robinson, J.D. Williams and M. Kraska

( Waliczek et al., 2000 ). This study focused on one of those benefits, life skills, by measuring the effects of plant activities on the following five life skill areas: leadership, teamwork, self-understanding, decision-making skills, and communication

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Carolyn W. Robinson and Jayne M. Zajicek

The goal of this study was to assess changes in the life skill development of elementary school students participating in a 1-year school garden program. The Life Skills Inventory included statements for six constructs of life skills including teamwork, self-understanding, leadership, decision making skills, communication skills, and volunteerism. The students were divided into two treatment groups, an experimental group that participated in the garden program and a control group that did not participate in the school garden program. Students in the control group had significantly higher overall life skills scores on the pretest compared to students participating in the garden program but the scores were no longer significantly different between the groups on the posttest scores at the end of the program. In addition, there were no significant differences in the control group's pretest scores compared to their posttest scores. However, the students in the experimental group did significantly increase their overall life skills scores by 1.5 points after participating in the garden program. Two internal life skill scales were positively influenced by the garden program; “working with groups” and “self understanding.”

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” curriculum have on six children's life skills: teamwork, self-understanding, decision-making, communication, and overall life skills. Third grade students who participated in eight plant activities were compared with control-group students. No significant

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Wan-Wei Yu, Der-Lin Ling and Yu-Sen Chang

diverse and sometimes polytheistic religions in Taiwan ( Hsiao et al., 2007 ). The spiritual health scale includes five dimensions: meaning derived from living, self-understanding, transcendence, connection to others, and religious attachment. It offers

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Seong-Sil Kim, Sin-Ae Park and Ki-Cheol Son

to encourage socially friendly behaviors ( Lee, 2001 ), including self-understanding ( Do, 2008 ) and expression ( Choi, 2007b ), sense of achievement ( Kim, 2012 ), sense of power ( Jang, 2012 ), sense of belonging ( Yun, 2011 ), sense of intimacy

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Yuan-Yu Chang, Wei-Chia Su, I-Chun Tang and Chun-Yen Chang

also increased. Some of the benefits identified from these studies include increasing children’s life skills such as gaining self-esteem ( Alexander et al., 1995 ; Montessori, 1912 ; Sarver, 1985 ) and self-understanding ( Robinson and Zajicek, 2005

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Takaho Taniguchi and Rie Akamatsu

) reported that scores on tests measuring life skills increased after participation in a garden program. Improvements were especially pronounced with respect to working with groups (e.g., “I can work with other people”) and self-understanding (e.g., “I try

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Carl Taylor, Elizabeth B. Symon, Amy Dabbs, Alexander Way and Olivia M. Thompson

impacts on students’ grades in addition to knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward food, including socializing and environmentalism ( Blair, 2009 ; Williams and Dixon, 2013 ). Additional benefits have been demonstrated in the areas of teamwork and self-understanding