strong. One reason for trait variability in seed-produced cultivars could be the inbreeding barriers that exist in Echinacea germplasm ( Ault, 2006 ). Although poorly understood in Echinacea , one such barrier is assumed to be self-incompatibility (SI
Loren C. Stephens
Shao-Ling Zhang and Shin Hiratsuka
Cultivars of the Japanese pear [Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai] have variable degrees of self-incompatibility (SI) and can be classified into at least three groups: strong, intermediate, or weak SI; as shown by the extent of self-pollen tube growth in the style, and the percentage of fruit set following self-pollination. Following self-pollination, the elongation of pollen tubes in the detached styles of `Kosui' and `Kikusui' became increasingly suppressed from 4 days before anthesis (–4 DAA) to 2 days after anthesis (2 DAA). Tube growth of `Kosui' was more suppressed than that of `Kikusui' during this period. In `Osa-Nijisseiki', however, the rate of tube growth did not vary with stage of stylar development, from –8 to 2 DAA. Pollen tubes elongated much better after cross-pollination than after self-pollination at all stages tested, and the extent of the elongation increased as the styles matured. The concentration of total S-protein (sum of two S-proteins per buffer-soluble protein) increased with stylar development, but the rate of increase varied with the cultivar. The rate was significantly greater in the strongly self-incompatible `Kosui' than in the moderately self-incompatible `Kikusui', and was slowest in the weakly self-incompatible `Osa-Nijisseiki' at all developmental stages. During stylar maturation, the concentration of S4-protein, which is common in all cultivars, was highest in `Kosui', followed by `Kikusui' and `Osa-Nijisseiki'. Thus, the cultivar differences in SI expression in the Japanese pear are determined about –4 DAA and appear to be regulated, in part, by the concentration of S-proteins produced in the style.
Sandra M. Reed
Low seed set has been reported following self-pollinations of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.). The objective of this study was to verify the presence of self-incompatibility in C. florida. `Cherokee Princess' stigmas and styles were collected 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after cross- and self-pollinations, stained with aniline blue and observed using a fluorescence microscope. Pollen germinated freely following self-pollinations, but self-pollen tubes grew slower than those resulting from cross-pollinations. By 48 hours after cross-pollination, pollen tubes had reached the bottom of the style while pollen tubes in self-pollinated flowers had only penetrated the upper third of the style. Evidence of reduced pollen tube growth rate in self-pollinations of `Cherokee Chief' and `Cherokee Brave' was also obtained. This study provides evidence of a gametophytic self-incompatibity system in C. florida. It was also determined that stigmas of C. florida `Cherokee Princess' are receptive to pollen from 1 day prior to anthesis to 1 day after anthesis.
Javier Sanzol and Maria Herrero
adequate cropping ( Waite, 1894 ). Self-fertilization in pear is prevented by a gametophytic self-incompatibility system ( de Nettancourt, 2001 ) and pear cultivars are generally considered self-incompatible ( Crane and Lewis, 1942 ; Sanzol and Herrero
Yiran Li, Asuka Uchida, Akiha Abe, Akihiro Yamamoto, Tomonari Hirano and Hisato Kunitake
Self-incompatibility is a genetic mechanism that exists in flowering plants to prevent a plant from being pollinated by its own pollen and to promote cross-pollination. Gametophytic SI (GSI), one form of SI, has been extensively studied and S
Yiran Li, Akiha Abe, Takuichi Fuse, Tomonari Hirano, Yoichiro Hoshino and Hisato Kunitake
Self-incompatibility in angiosperms is known as a mechanism for preventing self-fertilization and promoting outcross pollination by arresting pollen tube growth. One of the SI systems, RNase-mediated gametophytic SI (GSI), is based on the
Ali Lansari and Amy Iezzoni
Self-incompatibility was investigated in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) by examining pollen growth in the pistil by use of ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy following self- and cross-pollination. The sour cherry cultivars Tschernokorka and Crisana exhibit pollen tube inhibition in the style characteristic of gametophytic self-incompatibility. `Meteor' and `Montmorency' appear to be partially self-incompatible, with few self-pollen tubes reaching the ovary. Several hybrid seedlings from crosses between self-compatible cultivars were self-incompatible, suggesting that these self-compatible parental cultivars carry self-incompatibility alleles.
Marietta Loehrlein and Sandy Siqueira
Coreopsis rosea is important as a landscape plant and is of some impor-tance for restoration of native species. In both situations it is important to understand the breeding system so that the pollination process may be controlled for optimal seed production. The study of the incompatibility system is important to seed production. In commercial crops, seeds may be products of open pollination or F1 hybrids. In the former, genetic variability exists. In conservation and recovery programs of local flora, seeds with genetic variability are desirable. In development of commercial crops, uniform seeds and plants are desirable. Regardless of whether seeds will ultimately be used for commercial crops or for species restoration, an understanding of self-incompatibility will allow the pollination process to be manipulated for optimal seed production. The purpose of this research was to investigate the sexual reproduction mode in Coreopsis rosea. The objectives were to determine whether Coreopsis rosea operates with a self-incompatibility system, and, if so, to discover whether it is a sporophytic or gametophytic mode. The sporophytic form of self-incompatibility has been found in other plants in the Asteraceae family, but no one has studied self-incompatibility in Coreopsis rosea. The purpose of this research was to identify the self-incompatibility system in Coreopsis rosea. A series of self- and cross-pollinations were made in situ, and in vivo pollinations were made and the pistils studied under the microscope. Results indicate that Coreopsis rosea is self-incompatible and operates under the sporophytic mode.
Cheryl R. Hampson and Anita N. Azarenko
Self-incompatibility, a genetic mechanism enforcing out crossing, is most commonly controlled by a single, multi-allelic gene, designated the S-gene. Sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI), a form of incompatibility determined by the parent plant rather than the gametes, is present in the Brassicaceae, Compositae and other families, and also in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.). Little is known about the molecular basis of SSI in plants other than crucifers. An S-gene cloned from Brassica oleracea (donated by Dr. June Nasrallah, Cornell University) was used to probe genomic DNA obtained from seven hazelnut genotypes. DNA hybridization was observed in cultivars `Hall's Giant' and `Willamette'. Gene similarity was estimated to be 70-80%.
L. Mansur, M. Gonzalez, I. Rojas and P. Salas
The Chilean genus Leucocoryne has exceptional qualities as an ornamental plant that is being developed through breeding. Little is known about the origin of its genetic variation for flower phenotype. Our hypothesis is that, despite having a perfect flower, Leucocoryne has an outbreeding behavior due to self-incompatibility. Greenhouse studies were conducted to study self-incompatibility. In 2000, one species L. purpurea Gay. and two distinct populations Leucocoryne sp. Pichicuy and Leucocoryne sp. Chigualoco were used, whereas in 2001, L. coquimbensis F. Phil. and Leucocoryne sp. Alcones and Leucocoryne sp. Talinay were added. Field studies were carried out in 2001 at La Campana (lat. 29°S, Valparaíso Region, Chile) and Bosque de Fray Jorge (lat. 33°S, Coquimbo Region, Chile) National Parks with L. ixioides Lindley and L. purpurea, respectively. The index of self-genetic incompatibility (ISI) was measured as the average number of seeds per fruit produced by self-pollination divided by the average number of seeds per fruit produced from cross-pollination. The average ISI values for 2000 and 2001 were 0.08 and 0.06, respectively, meaning that Leucocoryne is largely self-incompatible. In the field seed set was compared between flowers that were isolated from insects and those that were not. None of the isolated flowers produced seeds, instead nonisolated flowers produced an average of 29 seeds per fruit at La Campana and 56 at Bosque de Fray Jorge. Leucocoryne's self-incompatibility and outcrossing behavior plus its capacity to fix any genotype via asexual reproduction, most likely contribute to its large variation for flower color, shape, size, design, and aroma. Due to Leucocoryne's reproductive behavior it would be difficult to breed for homozygous inbreds and pure hybrid cultivars