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Kazim Mavi and Ibrahim Demir

Obtaining optimum and uniform plant stands in the field requires rapid seedling emergence. Various environmental stress factors such as low and high temperatures, mechanical stress, and high salinity affect emergence during stand establishment in

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Genhua Niu, Pedro Osuna, Youping Sun, and Denise S. Rodriguez

chile peppers based on seedling emergence, visual quality, growth, and physiological responses when germinated and irrigated with saline solution at elevated salinity levels. Materials and Methods Salt tolerance of mature plant (Expt. 1) Plant materials

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Martin M. Williams II and Carl A. Bradley

Agriculture (USDA), 2016 ]. Poor crop establishment is a major problem in edamame. Poor seedling emergence and uneven crop stands appear to be the norm in field trials, from North Dakota ( Duppong and Hatterman-Valenti, 2005 ) to Georgia ( Rao et al., 2002

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Chunyang Zhang, Jiefang Wu, Danwen Fu, Limin Wang, Jiezhen Chen, Changhe Cai, and Liangxi Ou

germination and seedling emergence. Therefore, temperature may be an important influence factor for germination of litchi seeds. Seed orientation and sowing depth both play important roles in seed germination and seedling emergence ( Aou-ouad et al., 2014

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Ibrahim Demir, Tuba Celikkol, Golge Sarıkamıs, and Ceren Eksi

production to obtain optimum seedling emergence and uniformity requires high-quality seeds. Germination tests are used to evaluate the production of normal seedlings under optimal germination conditions ( Atwater, 1978 ; Geneve, 2008 ). However, these do not

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Nan Tang, Rulong Jia, Jicheng Yin, Yan Wang, and Daocheng Tang

uniformity of seedling emergence, the best temperature and storage time for bulblet pretreatment is 5 °C and 3 weeks. Table 1. Effects of low temperature and storage time on seedling sprouting. Effects of cold treatments on the sprouting rate

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Xi Wang, Genhua Niu, Mengmeng Gu, Paul A. Baumann, and Joseph Masabni

’ and S. alba ‘IdaGold’ seed meal at 2,000 kg·ha −1 greatly reduced weed seedling emergence and biomass of Italian ryegrass ( Lolium perenne spp. multiflorum ), prickly lettuce ( Lactuca serriola ), redroot pigweed and wild oat ( Avena fatua

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J. Scott Ebdon and Michelle DaCosta

to form a dense turf. Seedling emergence, seedling vigor, and mature plant growth are distinct but related stages. Numerous studies have investigated laboratory seed germination characteristics such as final germination percentage and mean germination

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Claudinei Andreoli and Anwar A. Khan

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds germinated poorly at 25C in the presence of gibberellin (GA4+7) or following matriconditioning at 25C for 4 days. However, a combined treatment of matriconditioning and GA4+7 for 4 days synergistically promoted germination and seedling emergence. Drying the seeds after conditioning reduced the percentage of seedling emergence in the combined treatment involving 400 μm GA4+7 only. Combining matriconditioning with 100 or 200 μm GA4+7could effectively reduce germination time and improve seedling emergence and is recommended as a standard procedure for testing papaya seed germination.

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Robin A. DeMeo and Thomas E. Marler

Two studies were conducted to determine the influence of pH on papaya seed germination and seedling emergence. The germination test was conducted with `Waimanalo' and `Tainung 1' seeds, using a double layer of filter paper disks in plastic petri dishes placed within a growth chamber. Each dish received 40 seeds, and germination was defined as when the radicle was visible. Disks were wetted daily with nutrient solution adjusted to pH of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9. Germination began on day 5, and the study was terminated on day 23. Solution pH did not influence germination rate or ultimate germination percentage. `Waimanalo' exhibited 58% germination and `Tainung 1' exhibited 64% germination in this test. The seedling emergence study was conducted with `Waimanalo' seeds using sand culture within a growth chamber. Thirty seeds were planted in 10-cm containers, and the sand was irrigated daily with the solutions from the first study. Emergence was defined as when the hypocotyl hook was visible above the sand. Emergence began on day 10, and the study was terminated on day 30. Solution pH did not influence seedling emergence, and mean emergence was 69% in this study. The results indicate that the seed germination and seedling emergence stages of papaya seedling growth are adapted to a wide range of substrate pH.