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Bernd Leinauer, Matteo Serena, and Devesh Singh

and found reduced germination in complete fertilizer-coated grass seed compared with grasses seeded with raw seed. The authors concluded that coated seed could not be recommended unless seeding rates were increased. However, Greipsson (1999

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Brian A. Kahn and Niels O. Maness

-row seeding rates (either 48 or 96 seeds per 30 cm of row). Beds were not raised and not mulched. For convenience, these treatments were designated 4L (four rows, 48 seeds per 30 cm of row); 4H (four rows, 96 seeds per 30 cm of row); 8L (eight rows, 48 seeds

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Luqi Li, Matthew D. Sousek, Keenan L. Amundsen, and Zachary J. Reicher

., 1998 ). Recommended buffalograss seeding rates are inconsistent in the literature, indicating that optimal seeding rates likely vary among cultivars. For instance, Gaitan-Gaitan et al. (1999) recommended seeding ‘Texoka’ and ‘Comanche’ at 177 kg·ha −1

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R.C. Shearman, H. Budak, S. Severmutlu, and R.E. Gaussoin

Little or no research information exists in the literature regarding recommended seeding rates of improved turf-type buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides) cultivars, like `Bowie'. This research was conducted to determine the effect of bur seeding rate on turfgrass establishment of `Bowie' buffalograss. Two experiments were initiated on 21 July 2002 on diverse sites at the John Seaton Anderson Turfgrass Research Facility located near Mead, Nebr. Bur seeding rate effects on turfgrass quality, shoot density and cover, and seedling density were evaluated during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons. Burs were seeded at 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 g·m–2 (0.51, 1.0, 2.0, 4.1, and 8.2 lb/1000 ft2) of pure live seed (PLS). Turfgrass quality ratings increased linearly with bur seeding rate during the first growing season. However, by early in the second growing season, the response was quadratic with little or no difference in quality between 10 and 40 g·m–2. Turfgrass cover ratings responded in a similar manner to the quality ratings. Buffalograss is reported to establish slowly, taking more than one growing season to establish an acceptable level. In this study, `Bowie', a turf-type cultivar, had acceptable turfgrass quality (≥5.0) and cover (≥75%) ratings by 3 months at bur seeding rates of 5 to 40 g·m–2 of PLS, and acceptable quality and cover ratings were obtained at slightly over 1 month at rates of 20 to 40 g·m–2. These results indicate that bur seeding rates of 20 to 40 g·m–2 are advisable where rapid establishment of turf-type buffalograss is desired, and rates as low as 5 g·m–2 can be used when establishment within two growing seasons is deemed reasonable.

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James D. McCurdy, J. Scott McElroy, and Elizabeth A. Guertal

that it too should be tested as a means of improving white clover establishment. Other variables that affect white clover establishment are establishment timing and seeding rate. Recommended establishment dates for white clover in the southeastern

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Daljeet S. Dhaliwal and Martin M. Williams II

selling edamame seed identify seeding rates ranging from 197,600 plants/ha (Wannamaker Seeds, Saluda, NC) to 344,200 plants/ha (Johnny’s Selected Seeds, Winslow, ME), which is similar to recommendations for grain-type soybean ( Nafziger, 2009 ). However

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Richard L. Harkess and Robert E. Lyons

Combinations of seeding rate, spacing, and weed control treatments were evaluated for their effect on the performance of the Virginia Tech transplanted meadow technique. The treatments consisted of seeding at 112 or 56 g·90 m−2; within-row transplant spacing of 30, 45, or 60 cm; and mulching, oryzalin application, or no weed control measures. Plant competition alone was insufficient, whereas oryzalin was the most effective for weed control but also reduced the plant stand and floral display. Mulch provided effective weed control with maximum floral display. Close transplant spacing within rows resulted in quick site coverage initially, but this advantage disappeared after 8 weeks compared to wider spacing. Seeding rate did not affect site coverage until the meadow reached maturity at 12 weeks. The lower seed rate allowed more lodging, resulting in a more open appearance and greater canopy light transmission. Chemical name used: 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (oryzalin).

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Richard L. Harkess and Robert E. Lyons

Combinations of seed rate, spacing and weed control treatments were evaluated for their effect on the performance of The Virginia Tech Transplanted Meadow technique. The treatments consisted of seed rates of 112 g or 56 g per 90 m-2; within-row transplant spacing of 30, 45, or 60 cm; and mulch, oryzalin, or nothing applied for weed control. Plant competition alone was insufficient for effective weed control whereas oryzalin was the best but also reduced the plant stand and floral display. Mulch provided effective weed control with maximum floral display. Close transplant spacing within rows resulted in quick site coverage but this advantage disappeared after 8 weeks when no difference in floral display was observed. Seeding rate did not affect site coverage until the meadow reached maturity at 12 weeks. The lower seed rate allow ed more lodging, resulting in a more open appearance and greater light transmission through the canopy. Chemical name used: 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5dlnitrohenzenesulfonamide (oryzalin).

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Regina P. Bracy and Richard L. Parish

A precision seeder (Stanhay Model 870) and a bulk seeder (Planet Jr.) were used to evaluate the effects of precision seeding, seed spacing, and row configuration on yield and grade-out of two cultivars of root turnips. Seed spacings for the precision seeder included within-row (WIR) spacings of 56, 112, and 168 mm in single plant line/row and 112 and 168 mm in two plant lines/row. Seed spacings with the bulk seeder were obtained by using 100% viable seed or a 50% viable: 50% killed seed mix. The experiments were conducted during the spring and fall on two rows on a 1.2-m-wide bed. Total yield was not affected by plant population or seeder. Plant population, however, caused a shift in yield among grades. Yield of culls increased as plant population increased. Yield of extra-large (>114 mm) roots decreased as plant population increased. Turnips seeded 168 mm apart in a single line/row yielded more extra-large and large (25-114 mm) grade roots and less medium (4-24 mm) and cull (<4 mm or misshapen) roots. More consistent results were obtained with the precision seeder than the bulk seeder. During both seasons, yield was lower for the hybrid (`Royal Crown') cultivar than for the open-pollinated (`Purple Top White Globe') cultivar.

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A.D. Brede

A field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivar, seeding rate, N fertilization rate, and cutting height on the severity of dollar spot (Lanzia and Moellerodiscus spp.) disease incidence. All possible two-factor interactions among these four management factors were statistically significant when averaged over the 2 years of study. Disease severity tended to be lowest at low fescue seeding rate (2100 pure-live seeds/m*) at the lower (19 mm) height of cut. `Mustang', the turf-type cultivar with improved density, was more susceptible to dollar spot than `Kentucky-31', the common-type cultivar.