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Brian J. Schutte, Adriana D. Sanchez, Leslie L. Beck, and Omololu John Idowu

weed management plans feature tactics that aim to reduce the number weed seeds in soil ( Swanton et al., 2008 ). A method for seedbank reduction that uses commonplace crop production technology is the false seedbed ( Cloutier et al., 2007 ). False

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Gina M. Angelella, Laura Stange, Holly L. Scoggins, and Megan E. O’Rourke

species composition affect pollinator communities ( Venturini et al., 2017 )? We conducted a study to address these questions, investigating PR establishment and pollinator conservation value relative to seedbed preparation, seed mix composition, and

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Gina M. Angelella and Megan E. O’Rourke

seedbed preparation can be critical for ensuring sustained weed management throughout the pollinator establishment phase ( Aldrich, 2002 ; Bartels, 1992 ; Martin, 1986 ; Wilson, 1992 ). Pollinator habitat installation guide recommendations for seedbed

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Brian Caldwell and Charles L. Mohler

Effects of several stale seedbed procedures on weed density and biomass were evaluated on a silt loam soil in central New York. After an initial rotary tillage, weeds were allowed to emerge and either single or multiple applications of glyphosate, propane flame, spring tine weeder, springtooth harrow, or rotary tiller were used to kill the weeds over a 4-week period. The last (or only) application occurred immediately prior to simulated seeding of a crop performed by passing an empty seeder through the plots. These stale seedbed treatments were compared with a control consisting of a single rotary tillage just before simulated planting. Flaming or glyphosate stale seedbed techniques significantly reduced density and biomass of the principal broadleaf species, common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) and common chickweed [Stellaria media (L.) Cyrillo], in most cases. A single delayed flame or glyphosate stale seedbed treatment was usually as effective as multiple treatments. None of the stale seedbed techniques was effective against yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.). A flexible tine weeder was not effective as a stale seedbed weed-killing treatment in this study because of poor penetration of crusted soil. Penetration was better with a springtooth harrow, but this failed to reduce weed density. None of the stale seedbed treatments fully controlled weeds. However, glyphosate or flaming a stale seedbed could be incorporated into integrated weed management programs to improve control and reduce the need for herbicides. Broadleaf weed density within 3.8 cm of the center of the seeder wheel track was greater than elsewhere in the plot. Chemical name used: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate).

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Yang Li, Juanqi Li, Guoxiu Wu, Yanman Li, Aimin Shen, Deli Ma, and Shengli Li

uniformity of seedling growth ( Zhang et al., 2016 ). Therefore, it is necessary to develop a controllable air disturbance device for growing seedlings in a solar greenhouse. In this experiment, we designed an air blowing device that fastens to the seedbed

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M.M. Gaye and A.R. Maurer

Field studies were conducted to determine the effects of row covers (no row cover or Agryl P-17), seeding date, and seeding method (seeding in a furrow or into a smooth soil surface) on the development, harvest date, and yield of brussels sprouts [Brassica oleracea L. (Gemmifera Group)] grown in southwestern British Columbia. The treatments were applied to the plants in the seedbed after which the plants were transplanted in the field and grown to horticultural maturity. In both years, row covers increased soil temperatures and advanced seedling development and transplanting dates compared with uncovered treatments. Leaf weight ratio (LWR) decreased, specific leaf area (SLA) increased, and leaf area ratio (LAR) was unaffected by the application of row covers. Early seeding also promoted early transplanting. In 1987, plots were harvested when plants reached horticultural maturity. There was a linear effect of seeding date on harvest date, early seeding promoted an early harvest, and row covers advanced the sprout harvest of plants seeded earliest (24 Mar). In 1988 all treatments were harvested from 17 to 19 Oct. and marketable yield was improved by early seeding and by row covers. Seeding method did not influence plant growth or yield.

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Carlos A. Lazcano, Frank J. Dainello, Leonard M. Pike, Marvin E. Miller, Lynn Brandenberger, and Larry R. Baker

Baby-style carrot Daucus carota Mill. cv. Caropak was studied under four population densities, three different numbers of lines per bed, and harvested under three root size harvest parameters in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Four phases in the baby-style carrot process were evaluated. Length of the roots at harvest and projected values for total waste and marketable yield were estimated. Length was affected by root size at harvest, the most desirable root length occurred when harvested at 25%-35% roots diameter >2 cm. The longer roots (16.55 cm) were in the treatments with 6 seed lines per bed and 197 plants/m2. Population density affected the fresh and cut weight in the baby-style carrots process with the highest weight at 321 plants/m2. Percent of cut waste was the same at the three-root size at harvest with 21.65% of crowns and tips cut. The percent of graded waste was lowest when harvested at the biggest root size, 14.23% and four seed lines per bed produced the highest waste with 18.14. Seed lines per bed affected the quality of the roots in the graded step. Based on a 40% peeling waste projection the lowest total waste was estimated at 59.69% and the highest projected marketable yield of 19.4 t/ha of final product when roots were harvested using the 25%-35% root diameter parameter. Root size at harvest is the main factor affecting projected marketable yield of baby-style carrots in South Texas.

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Jared. A. Hoyle, Gerald M. Henry, Travis Williams, Aaron Holbrook, Tyler Cooper, Leslie L. Beck, and Andrew J. Hephner

-selective herbicide followed by seedbed preparation ( Turgeon, 2011 ). Jordan (1977) reported 91% bermudagrass control 21 d after treatment in response to glyphosate applied at 1.1 kg ae/ha in the greenhouse. However, Johnson (1988) noted that three applications

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S. Alan Walters and Bryan G. Young

PRE in pumpkin for control of several different broadleaf weeds. The use of other chemical weed management practices for NT pumpkins, such as stale seedbed herbicide treatments or POST-directed herbicide applications to row middles with nonselective

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Marco Fontanelli, Luisa Martelloni, Michele Raffaelli, Christian Frasconi, Marco Ginanni, and Andrea Peruzzi

compromising its commercial quality. Mechanical weed control is widely used for both presowing and postemergence weed management. Thermal weed control is increasingly used in both preemergence of the crop (stale seedbed technique) and postemergence in heat