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Daniela Farinelli, Pierluigi Pierantozzi, and Assunta Maria Palese

determining fruit set, embryo death, seed number, and development and fruit growth are needed as well as evaluation of the maternal and paternal influences. In the present study, the effect of all possible pollination combinations among the cultivars Ascolana

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Bernadine C. Strik and Amanda J. Vance

–19 mm), and large (>19 mm) diameter, and 10 berries from each size category were individually weighed and frozen for later analysis of seed number. Seeds were separated from skin and pulp and prepared for counting using the procedure published by

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T. Kushima and M. E. Austin

Abstract

Seed counts of 2 size grades from 3 fruit sizes were made from 30 fruits each of 21 rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei Reade) cultivars and selections. Total seeds/berry ranged from 110 for ‘Briteblue’ to 28 for selection T-111. Generally, larger fruit had more total and large seeds than smaller fruit; however, this relationship was not constant for all cultivars. Total seed number and number of large seeds per fruit appear to be heritable.

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Sarah K. Taber and James W. Olmstead

. Supporting this association between seed number and fruit size and development period are cases where interspecific crosses have been compared with crosses that were either self- or cross-pollinated. Aalders and Hall (1961) found reduced seed set in lowbush

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B. Feinstein, S. P. Monselise, and R. Goren

Abstract

Studies of pollen germination, stigmatic treatments and a field experiment were conducted in an attempt to decrease seed number of mandarin-type fruits (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Dancy and C. reticulata Blanco cv. Temple). Gibberellin (GA3) in the medium inhibited germination only above 250 ppm; cycloheximide inhibited it at 0.1 ppm. Treatments of the above and other compounds applied to stigmatic surfaces decreased either set or yield. Field treatments with 20 ppm GA at early- or mid-bloom or 150 ppm naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) applied when fruitlets were 5 or 10 mm in diameter alone or in combinations, decreased seed number to 72% for ‘Dancy’ and 82% for ‘Temple’. Effects of NAA were greater than for GA. Neither treatment caused thinning. Instead, fruit number and yields increased, while fruit size decreased slightly. Bioassays of NAA-treated fruitlets showed residual active NAA 25 days after spraying as well as an increase in native gibberellin-like activity which was highest in NAA + GA-treated fruitlets.

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Rogério Ritzinger and Paul M. Lyrene

Open-pollinated southern highbush (V. corymbosum L. hybrids) and F1 (southern highbush × V. simulatum Small) hybrid blueberry seedlings were compared for fertility in a high-density nursery in Gainesville, Fla. Most of the pollen sources in the field were tetraploid southern highbush seedlings. Berries were collected from 100 southern highbush seedlings and from 100 seedlings from southern highbush × V. simulatum crosses. The seeds were extracted and dried on a laboratory bench for several days before weighing. No significant differences were found in seed mass/berry between the two types of seedlings. Although the F1 interspecific hybrids averaged slightly lower in seed mass per berry, this was due to the smaller size of their well-developed seeds, not to poor seed development. The estimated number of well-developed seeds per berry was 35.4 and 39.1 for southern highbush blueberries and their F1 hybrids with V. simulatum, respectively. These results indicate that reduced fertility should not be a problem in using V. simulatum to breed southern highbush blueberries.

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W.J. Bramlage, S.A. Weis, and D.W. Greene

In a population of `Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) with varying seed number at harvest, fruit size and Ca concentration in fruit increased with seed number. Neither K nor Mg concentration in fruit was related to seed number. In another population of `McIntosh' apples from 50 commercial orchard blocks, the percentage of fruit that developed senescent breakdown, a Ca-deficiency disorder, decreased linearly as seed number per fruit increased. Low seed number is probably a factor contributing to Ca deficiency in apple fruit.

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Daniel L. Ward, Richard P. Marini, and Ross E. Byers

Preharvest fruit drop of apple [Malu×domestica (L.) Borkh.] can cause significant crop losses, but factors controlling date of individual fruit drop are unknown. In three types of experiments, we investigated the relationships among seed number/fruit, fruit weight, and day of year of drop. By shading in mid-May and stigma excision before bloom, we induced variability in seed number. Dropped fruit were weighed, and their seeds were counted daily from late August until all fruit had dropped. Nontreated trees were studied similarly. Regression analyses were used to assess relationships among day of drop, fruit weight, and seed number/fruit. Substantial variation in day of drop of individual fruit was not explained by seed number of the fruit in these experiments with `Smoothee Golden Delicious', `Redchief Delicious', and `Commander York'.

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G. W. Eaton

Abstract

Regressions of berry weights on seed number in individual fruits of the blue berry have been reported only by Aalders and Hall (1) for Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. They obtained two highly significant (P = .01) linear regression coefficients.

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Fahrettin Goktepe and Harrison Hughes*

The watermelon cv. Crimson Sweet was transformed with the copper inducible isopentenyl transferase, the rate-limiting step in cytokinin biosynthesis, gene via Agrobacterium tumafaciences (LBA4404). Transformed (ipt) and nontransformed plants were regenerated from tissue culture and clonally propagated by the rooting of leaf node cuttings. Twelve plants of each were grown in 1-gal. pots. Once the plants initiated new growth both transgenic plants and wild type plants were sprayed with one of four different concentrations (0, 5, 10, & 50 μm) of CuSO4. The experimental unit was a single plant with three replicates. The growth rate, number of leaves, flowers, lateral shoots, and chlorophyll content were measured weekly for five weeks. Treated transgenic plants had greater numbers of leaves, flowers and lateral branches as well as higher chlorophyll levels. Pollen viability was examined in all treatments with no differences among treatments. Plants of both types were self pollinated to generate seeds. Female flowers were bagged before opening and then selfed. Selfed flowers were bagged for at least two days. The fruits were grown for eight to ten weeks with support. Once they reached maturity, fruits were harvested and fruit shape, flesh color, brix, number of normal seeds, number of colored but empty seeds and number of white seeds were recorded. Significant differences were observed only in seed number between wild type and transgenic (both treated and nontreated,) watermelon fruits. The number of seeds in transgenic watermelon plants treated with CuSO4 was reduced to about 5% to 7% of wild type plants. Transgenic plants which received no CuSO4 had approximately 33% to 50% of the seed of wild type.