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Jesse Vorwald and James Nienhuis

., 1995 ). In popcorn, a seed moisture content above or below an optimum range will dramatically reduce popping percentage ( Hoseney et al., 1983 ). In previous collaborative research on nuña bean popping with Dr. Robert Lindsey, Department of Food Science

Open access

Chia Ting Han, Yu Sung, and Ming-Tung Hsueh

germinated seedlings on the i th day ) T 90 − T 10 = Difference \ in number of days to \ reach \ 90 and 10 % of total germination Effects of initial seed moisture content on hardseededness. Seeds harvested at NCHU with 7%, 9%, 11%, and 14.8% MC

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Mark A. Bennett and Luther Waters Jr.

Abstract

Field studies were conducted to examine the effect of increasing the moisture content of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus ‘Kingston 098’) seed prior to planting. Seed moisture was adjusted by combining seed, vermiculite, and varying amounts of water in plastic packets which were then sealed and incubated at 22°C for 3 days. Initial seed moisture ranged from 8% to 56%. Trials were planted at 2 locations in 1981 (Becker and Rochester, Minn.), and at 3 locations in 1982 (Becker, St. Paul and Waseca, Minn.). Seed moisture above the normal 8% to 10% range increased emergence and stand establishment at all locations. As a general trend, increased seed moisture up to about 40% improved percentage of emergence and stand establishment. Harvest data varied between locations. Results from one location in both years showed elevated seed moisture to increase pods per plant, total pod dry weight, and total plant dry weight. Results from harvest (yield) data did not show consistent increases in the variables measured.

Open access

E. E. Roos and J. R. Manalo

Abstract

The moisture content of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds used in commercial plantings ranged from 7.7 to 13.7% on a fresh-weight basis. Bean seeds having initial seed moisture contents above 12% had higher field emergence than lower moisture seeds particularly at soil temperatures below 10°C. The high-moisture seeds quickly lost moisture when planted in very dry soil. Laboratory germination was improved a lesser amount by raising initial seed moisture content.

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William J. Carpenter, Eric R. Ostmark, and John A. Cornell

Temperature, relative humidity (RH), desiccation, and hydration affect gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii H Bolus ex Hook.f.) seed storage and germination. Germination percentages (G) were maximal and about equal at constant 15, 20, or 25C in darkness or light but lower at alternating temperatures having the same mean temperature. The number of days to 50% final germination (T50) and between 10% and 90% germination (T90 – T10) required the fewest days at constant 25 or 30C; longer germination periods resulted with alternating temperatures. Reducing seed moisture from 7.1% to 3.5% had no effect on G, T50, or T90 – T10 values, but at seed moisture levels <3.5%, G was lower and T50 and T90 – T10 longer. Germination percentages were similar after seed storage from 5 to –5C, but G was lower after storage at –10C or lower. Low-temperature seed storage had no effect on T50 or T90 – T10 values. Seeds had highest G and lowest T50 and T90 – T10 values when germinated at 52% seed moisture, with large declines and delays in germination at lower and higher moisture levels. Seed storage for 12 months without reduction in germination was possible at 5C and 11% or 32% RH. Seeds stored at 52% RH lost G at all temperatures, and no seed germinated after storage at 75% RH and 15 or 25C. Seed stored at 5 or 15C and 11% to 32% RH had the fewest days to T50 and T90 – T10.

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Luther Waters Jr., Rhoda L. Burrows, Mark A. Bennett, and John Schoenecker

A series of experiments exploring the effect of seed moisture and transplant management techniques was conducted with sh2 and su sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The use of seed and transplants in a progression of developmental stages from dry seed to moistened seed to 14-day-old transplants showed that moistened seed had no impact on plant `growth and development. Use of transplants generally had little impact beyond decreasing percent survival and plant height. Increasing the age of transplants reduced the time to maturity and harvest. Increasing the size of the transplant container (paper pot) decreased the time to harvest for younger seedings, but had no other effects. Premoistened seed were successfully held at 10C for up to 72 hours without damage following moisturization. Delays in irrigation of up to 2 days after planting moistened seed had no detrimental effects on sweet corn emergence and growth.

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W.J. Carpenter, E.R. Ostmark, and J.A. Cornell

Phlox drummondii Hook seed germinated well over a wide range of constant or alternating temperatures. Germination percentages at constant temperatures of 10 to 25C ranged from 94% to 98% for `Light Salmon' and from 83% to 88% for `Deep Salmon'. No seeds germinated at constant 30C. Total germination percentages at alternating temperatures ranged from 93% to 99% for `Light Salmon' and 67% to 82% for `Deep Salmon'. For both cultivars, the number of days to 50% of final germination (T50) and between 10% and 90% germination (T90-T10) decreased as constant temperatures or the median for alternating temperatures rose from 10 to 20C. The seeds had only limited desiccation tolerance. Reducing the moisture content of stored seed from 9 % to 5 % did not reduce total germination significantly, but 5% to 6% seed moisture levels increased the days to T50 and T90-T10 compared with higher moisture contents. The relative humidity and temperature that phlox seed received during long-term storage influenced germination. After seed was stored at 5C, germination generally was higher, earlier, and more uniform than after storage at 15 or 25C. The highest total germination percentages and shortest T50 and T90-T10 occurred following storage for 12 months at 5C and 20% to 40% relative humidity.

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Jian Fang, Frank Moore, Eric Roos, and Christina Walters

Seed moisture content (MC) has been considered the most important factor controlling physiological reactions in seeds, and MC changes with relative humidity (RH) and temperature (T). This relationship is revealed by studying the interaction of RH and T at equilibrium. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus M. & N.) seeds were equilibrated over sulfuric acid (1% RH) and various saturated salt solutions (5.5% to 93% RH) at temperatures from 5 to 50 °C. Best-fit subset models were selected from the complete third-order model MC = β0 + β1 *RH + β2 *T + β3 *RH2 + β4 *T2 + β5 *RH*T + β6 *RH3 + β7 *T3 + β8 *RH*T2 + β9 *RH2*T, using Mallows' minimum Cp as the selection criterion. All six best subset models (R 2, 0.98 to 0.99) had the same functional form, MC = β0 + β1 *RH + β2 *T + β3 *RH2 + β5 *RH*T + β6 *RH3 + β9 *RH2*T. Coefficients had essentially the same respective values among all species except onion and pea, for which some coefficients were statistically different from those of the other species (P ≤ 0.05). All models indicated that seed MC increased as RH increased and decreased as T increased; but RH had the greater influence. The inverse relationship between seed MC and T, although slight, was evident in the response surfaces. The interaction effect of RH and T on MC was significant at P ≤0.001. These results suggest that orthodox seed species respond similarly to T and RH. This in turn suggests that a common model could be developed and used for optimizing seed storage environments.

Open access

B. M. Pollock, E. E. Roos, and J. R. Manalo

Abstract

Germination of samples of 12 commercial seed lots from among several commercial varieties of garden beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., was tested against stresses applied during a 24 hr imbibition period. The variables studied were temperature (15° vs. 25°C), substrate moisture-oxygen supply (fine sand with high moisture and low oxygen vs. coarse sand with lower moisture and higher oxygen), and initial seed moisture (8% vs. 10% vs. 12%). The effect of stress was evaluated by determining germination percentage, seedling size, decay, mechanical damage, and rate of emergence. All lots were adversely affected by the stresses, but the stress response varied greatly between lots and between varieties. The lots of the newer varieties, ‘Tendercrop’ and ‘White Seeded Tendercrop’, were especially sensitive, with a germination percentage of one lot decreasing from 72% to 7% under stress. By contrast, the lots of older varieties were relatively insensitive, with one lot decreasing only from 92% to 81%. The stress conditions increased the number of decaying seeds and decreased seedling size and number of normal seedlings. Transverse cotyledonary cracking, in crack-sensitive varieties, increased when seeds were imbibed at a low seed moisture, especially if imbibition occurred in a fine, moist sand. The potential application of these results to seed testing, vigor testing, and stand establishment is discussed.

Open access

M. H. Dickson and M. A. Boettger

Abstract

Semi-hard seed (SHS) in beans is defined as dry seed which does not imbibe water during a 24 hour soak, but which will gain moisture rapidly at high relative humidity within 14 days and then germinate normally. The inheritance of SHS was found to involve several genes. Soft seed was incompletely dominant to SHS. Narrow sense heritability ranged from 20 to 50% in populations studied. SHS was associated with excellent seed quality resulting in unusually vigorous seedlings.