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Masoume Amirkhani, Anil N. Netravali, Wencheng Huang, and Alan G. Taylor

seed priming, seed conditioning, and seed coating. Seed coating technology is concerned with uniform application of materials onto the seed surface and is expressed as the percent build-up or percent weight increase. Thus the seed coating provides

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M.D. Richardson and K.W. Hignight

Seed coating technologies have been used in the agricultural and horticultural industries for several decades ( Bishnoi and Wilhite, 2005 ; Otey, 1983 ; Woodhouse and Johnson, 1991 ). Seed coatings have been used to deter insects ( Nault et al

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Bernd Leinauer, Matteo Serena, and Devesh Singh

( Christians, 1998 ; Watschke and Schmidt, 1992 ). Seed coating was introduced by the vegetable industry in the late 1930s and early 1940s to increase seed size and achieve seed uniformity ( Kaufman, 1991 ; Roos and Moore, 1975 ). Seed coating has since

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Matteo Serena, Bernd Leinauer, Rossana Sallenave, Marco Schiavon, and Bernd Maier

Dudeck et al. (1986) , blotter paper tends to lose more water than agar media and salinity levels surrounding the seed may be higher in blotter paper than in agar. Seed coatings were first introduced in the late 1930s and early 1940s ( Kaufman, 1991

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Glen Kaufman

This article is a record of my experience with commercial seed coating. It is neither a survey of the literature nor a statistical comparison of experimental and commercial coatings. Instead, the intent is to provide a

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Alan G. Taylor, C.J. Eckenrode, and R.W. Straub

Conventional methods to control the onion maggot or onion fly, Delia antiqua (Meigen), have relied on in-furrow applications of the toxicant pesticide, chlorpyrifos. The objective of this research was to develop an onion (Allium cepa L.) seed treatment that utilizes a new chemistry compound that is environmentally safe. Cyromazine is an insect growth regulator with a mode of action different from traditional pesticides used to control onion maggot. Cyromazine has low mammalian toxicity and is relatively nontoxic to other insects, including beneficials. High seed loading rates (50 g·kg-1 active ingredient) are required for optimal efficacy, and conventional slurry methods are inadequate to apply these high loading rates. Film coating and pelleting were performed at Cornell Univ. to apply cyromazine and a registered fungicide (a formulation of thiram and carboxin) to onion seeds. Results of field studies performed over several years revealed that stand losses due to the onion maggot ranged from ≈20% to 60%. Cyromazine applied by either film coating or pelleting decreased the loss by onion maggot from 1% to 8%, and efficacy was comparable to an in-furrow application of chlorpyrifos. Cyromazine was registered as a seed treatment and is commercially used in the northeastern and midwestern United States, where onion maggot is a serious pest. Field emergence was not negatively affected by cyromazine coated onto the seeds when onion seeds are sown in organic (muck) soils. There is other evidence, however, that cyromazine seed treatments may cause phytotoxicity to germination and seedling growth. Testing seed quality in sand or on roll towels revealed a high percentage of abnormal seedlings. Retarded root growth was observed in seeds treated with cyromazine, resulting in an increase in abnormal seedling classifications. A finely ground sphagnum peatmoss applied over the seeds in a roll towel test ameliorated the abnormal root growth symptoms, and seedlings had robust growth. Collectively, film coating and pelleting were effective delivery systems for the application of plant protectants required at time of sowing. Modification of the standard germination test was needed to accurately assess onion seed quality. Moreover, this project was successful due to a team effort of a university seed scientist and entomologists working with onion growers and industry. Future registrations on small acreage, high-value horticultural crops are envisioned to require similar multi-partner approaches. Chemical name used: N-cyclopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (cyromazine).

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Kevin M. Heinz, Polly A. Harding, Maria Julissa Ek-Ramos, Heather Hernandez, Peter C. Krauter, and Gregory A. Sword

model indicated median germination time was significantly influenced by treatments. Seed coating had a significant impact on MGT (df = 1, χ 2 = 592, df = 1, P < 0.0001), with a higher MGT in noncoated seeds than coated seeds ( Table 2 ). The fungal

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Stanislav V. Magnitskiy, Claudio C. Pasian, Mark A. Bennett, and James D. Metzger

growing plants, David Tay for help with seed coating equipment and technique, and Bert Bishop for assistance in data analysis. Salaries and research support were provided in part by State and Federal funds appropriated to the Ohio Agricultural Research and

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Matteo Serena, Bernd Leinauer, Rossana Sallenave, Marco Schiavon, and Bernd Maier

materials intended to increase seed size and improve germination and establishment. Seed coatings are applied to give the seed a suitable shape and size and to add compounds that help and protect germination and establishment of the plant ( Scott, 1989

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A.G. Taylor, J. Prusinski, H.J. Hill, and M.D. Dickson

Water is pervasively involved in the life cycle of seeds. Water in the environment, either as a vapor or liquid, directly affects seed moisture status. This article is devoted to the study of seed moisture status in postharvest events. Two topics are discussed: imbibitional chilling injury and upgrading of primed seeds. Imbibitional chilling injury is a physiological disorder that occurs in large-seeded legumes as well as other important agronomic seeds. Imbibitional chilling injury has been shown to reduce the survival rate of seedlings. Surviving seedlings have less emergence force per seedling and require a longer period to generate maximum force. Rapid hydration has been shown to induce injury at a particular seed moisture level. Methods of regulating the hydration rate were explored to alleviate chilling injury in snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Plant breeding lines with the semihard seed characteristic delayed the onset of imbibition when the initial moisture level was low (8%). Coating seeds with polymeric films to complement the permeable testa retarded the imbibition rates. Both approaches alleviated chilling injury and improved seedling establishment under stressful conditions. Seed priming is a technique for elevation of seed moisture content before sowing. Primed seeds generally emerge more quickly than nonprimed seeds, especially under stressful environmental conditions. An additional merit of this technique is that it gives access to seeds with elevated moisture content. Various approaches may be employed to condition seeds after priming, but before redesiccation. Discarding the low-density fractions of primed tomato and lettuce seeds improved the percentage of germination compared with nonprimed seeds. Physiological mechanisms are presented to explain the association of density with seed viability in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).