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Theoharis Ouzounis, Eva Rosenqvist and Carl-Otto Ottosen

relationship between photosynthesis and secondary metabolism for ornamental or even edible greenhouse plants grown under LEDs, irrespective of whether they are grown in closed rooms or under natural light in greenhouses ( Li and Kubota, 2009 ; Ouzounis et al

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B. Tisserat and S.F. Vaughn

The growth (fresh weight), morphogenesis (number of needles and roots and shoot length) and monoterpene (α- and β-pinene) levels were determined in Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) seedlings exposed to 350, 1,500, 3,000, 10,000, or 30,000 μmol·mol-1 CO2 for 30 days under greenhouse conditions. Seedlings exposed to ultra-high levels (i.e., ≥3000 μmol·mol-1 CO2) had significantly higher (P = 0.05) fresh weight, needle number, root number, and shoot lengths compared to seedlings grown under ambient air (350 μmol·mol-1 CO2). Seedling fresh weights, number of roots, shoot length, and number of needles from pine seedlings supplemented with 10,000 μmol·mol-1 CO2 increased 341%, 200%, 74%, and 75 %, respectively, when compared to seedlings grown without any CO2 enrichment. In addition, α- and β-pinene levels in seedlings increased under ultra-high CO2 levels. The dominant monoterpene, α-pinene, increased 57% in seedlings grown under 10,000 μmol·mol-1 CO2 compared to levels obtained under 350 μmol·mol-1 CO2.

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H.H. Ratnayaka, B. Meurer-Grimes and D. Kincaid

Manual deflowering and leaf maturity were evaluated for effect on the yields of the bioactive sennosides A and B in Tinnevelly senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl). Deflowering increased sennoside A and B concentration (percent dry weight) in leaves by 25%, the total leaf dry mass by 63%, and the harvest index by 22%, with the result that the sennoside A and B yield (grams) per plant doubled in response to deflowering. During the same time, net photosynthesis remained consistently lower in the deflowered plants. Youngest leaves had the greatest sennoside A and B concentration. A clone raised from cuttings of one seedling had lower sennoside A:B ratio than the plants raised from the seedlings. Although crop type and possibly environmental conditions influenced the sennoside A:B ratio, deflowering and leaf maturity had no effect. The sennoside A and B concentrations in the dried leaves of deflowered plants harvested in 1.5-hour intervals appeared to increase during the course of the day. Deflowering, harvesting of young leaves, and harvesting time of day constitute promising component technologies for field investigations.

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M.A. Ritenour, M.J. Ahrens and M.E. Saltveit

Experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature on the ethylene inducibility of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) activity and the development of russet spotting (RS) in Iceberg lettuce (Lactucu sutiva L.). Tissue exposed to ethylene and held at 15 or 20C showed earlier hut lower peaks in PAL activity than tissue held at 5C. Accumulation of total soluble phenolic compounds, and the development of RS paralleled increases in PAL activity after a short lag period. Lettuce tissue transferred from 5 to 15C after 1 to 3 days showed later hut higher peaks in PAL activity than tissue continuously held at 15C. Transferring ethylene-exposed tissue to 0C before RS symptoms developed greatly limited further rise in PAL activity and RS development. Discontinuing ethylene exposure after 4 days resulted in a rapid decrease in PAL activity. Lettuce tissue exposed to ethylene for 4 days and then transferred from 5 to 0C after the development of moderate RS symptoms showed no difference in RS after 8 days compared to tissue stored continuously at 5C.

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Mark A. Ritenour, Ellen G. Sutter, David M. Williams and Mikal E. Saltveit

This study was undertaken to determine if endogenous IAA content and axillary bud development correlate with phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) induction and russet spotting (RS) susceptibility among RS susceptible and resistant cultivars of Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Final levels of ethylene-induced PAL activity and RS development were highly correlated among cultivars, field conditions, and harvest dates. Harvested Iceberg lettuce midribs contained relatively low amounts of free IAA (maximum of 5.2 ng·g-1 fresh weight). There was poor correlation between free IAA content in lettuce leaf midribs and final RS development among all cultivars, growing conditions, and harvest dates. Axillary bud development, as measured by the number of visible buds per head, bud weight, or bud length, were not significantly correlated with final RS development or midrib IAA content. Cultivars with higher initial free IAA content lost much of their IAA after 8 days storage at 5C in air ± ethylene.

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Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán, Julio Loaiza-Velarde, Antonio Bonfanti and Mikal E. Saltveit

The phenolic composition of whole heads and excised midrib sections of iceberg, butter leaf, and romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was followed at 5 and 10 °C during the first 3 days after wounding or during continuous exposure to 10 μL·L-1 ethylene in air. After 3 days of storage at 5 and 10 °C, only 5-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (isochlorogenic acid), caffeoyltartaric acid, and dicaffeoyltartaric acid were detected in wounded lettuce midribs. Of these four compounds, chlorogenic acid accumulated to the highest level in all three lettuce types. The content of caffeic acid derivatives increased 3- and 6-fold after 72 hours of storage at 5 and 10 °C, respectively. The synthesis of caffeoyltartaric acid was not induced by wounding in iceberg lettuce, while chlorogenic acid increased 5-fold at 5 °C and 10-fold at 10 °C. Similar relative phenolic compositions were detected in the three lettuce types studied, although at different concentrations. Changes observed in the content of individual phenolic compounds during the first 3 days of ethylene exposure seemed to follow the same pattern observed during wound induction of the synthesis of phenolic compounds. Chlorogenic acid increased 5-fold and isochlorogenic acid increased 10-fold, while the content of caffeoyltartaric derivatives were not significantly altered by ethylene treatment. Isochlorogenic acid, which was only present in low amounts in the control, was synthesized in the later steps of wound and ethylene induction. Similar kinetics for the induction of phenolic compounds were observed in the three lettuce types studied, suggesting that the mechanisms by which wounding induces phenylpropanoid synthesis are common for the different lettuce types.

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Michael P. Dzakovich, Celina Gómez, Mario G. Ferruzzi and Cary A. Mitchell

Plants are sessile organisms that use numerous mechanisms to respond to dynamic environmental factors. One such factor is light, which is a powerful elicitor of primary and secondary metabolism that ultimately affects the chemical and sensory

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John E. Lloyd, Daniel A. Herms, Mary Ann Rose and Jennifer Van Wagoner

The objective of this study was to determine if fertilization and irrigation practices in the nursery affect plant growth and stress resistance following outplanting in the landscape. Flowering crabapple (Malus) `Sutyzam', grown in containers under factorial combinations of two irrigations schedules (containers irrigated at 25% or 50% container capacity) and three rates of fertilization (N at 50, 200, 350 mg·L–1) in a nursery in 1997 were outplanted in a low maintenance landscape in 1998. Trees from the high fertility regime grew faster in the landscape the year of transplant. Tree growth in the landscape was positively correlated with N concentration in plants in the nursery and negatively correlated with concentrations of phenolics in the foliage in the landscape. However, the trees showing the greatest amount of diameter growth had the lowest concentrations of foliar phenolics. Trees with low concentrations of phenolics also exhibited a greater potential for herbivory by larvae of the eastern tent caterpillar, gypsy moth, and white-marked tussock moth. Additionally, trees exhibiting rapid growth in the landscape also had reduced photosynthesis during summer drought compared to slower growing trees, suggesting a reduced drought tolerance in the landscape. Differences in growth and stress resistance did not carry beyond the year of transplant. Our results illustrate that irrigation and fertilization methods in the nursery can influence growth post transplant, however fertilization also appears to have a significant impact on stress resistance traits of the trees. These impacts from the nursery production methods had no effect after plants had acclimated to the conditions in the landscape during the year following transplant.

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Theodore J.K. Radovich, Matthew D. Kleinhenz and John G. Streeter

To better understand the influence of environmental factors on components of crop productivity and nutritional and sensory quality parameters, the fresh-market cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata Group) `Bravo' was irrigated at different periods relative to head development in 2002 and 2003 at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center in Wooster. Irrigation was provided to plots either: 1) from planting to maturity, 2) during frame development only, or 3) during head development only. Control plants received no irrigation after plant establishment. Irrigation timing relative to crop stage significantly affected all head characteristics with the greatest differences between cabbage receiving irrigation during head development and cabbage not irrigated during head development. On average, heads from cabbage irrigated during head development were heavier, larger, less pointed, and had less volume occupied by the core than heads from cabbage not irrigated during head development. A positive, linear relationship (r 2 = 0.89) was found between head volume and head weight. Across years, combined head fructose and glucose concentrations were significantly greater and sucrose concentrations significantly lower in cabbage receiving irrigation during head development than in cabbage not irrigated during head development. Total and individual glucosinolate levels were greater in cabbage not irrigated during head development relative to cabbage receiving irrigation during head development. Head weight, fructose and glucose were positively related to the proportion of estimated crop evapotranspiration replaced by irrigation during head development, while the opposite response was observed in head sucrose and total and indole glucosinolate concentrations.

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Yumei Zhang, Runfang Hu, Huawei Li, Haisheng Zhu, Jinming Zhao, Na Guo, Han Xing and Guoqiang Lin

pathways: protein destination and storage (25%), energy (23%), metabolism (19%), disease/defense (15%), transporter (6%), secondary metabolism (4%), transcription (4%), protein synthesis (2%), and cell growth/division (2%). Fig. 1. Representative spot maps