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Timothy M. Spann and Holly A. Little

desirable to find ways of improving drought tolerance to improve production uniformity. Seaweed and seaweed extracts (SWE) have been used as soil amendments and fertilizers in agriculture for centuries, particularly in coastal temperate regions ( Blunden and

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Yuqi Li and Neil S. Mattson

Seaweed extracts and concentrates are used in agriculture and horticulture for its many beneficial effects on soil properties, plant growth, and crop yield ( Blunden et al., 1996 ; Khan et al., 2009 ). More than 18 million tons of seaweed products

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Robert L. Mikkelsen

translates to a greater surface area, reactivity, and weathering rate. Seaweed. Because sea water contains an average of 0.4 g·kg −1 K, seaweed may accumulate up to several percent K. When harvested, seaweed biomass can be used directly as a K source or the

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Karl Guillard and John C. Inguagiato

studies have reported beneficial effects of SWE applications to enhance the stress tolerance of turfgrasses. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of SWE on established lawn turf. Table 1. Summary of studies investigating the effects of seaweed

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Giuseppe Colla, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Paolo Bonini and Youssef Rouphael

research to be beneficial to one or more plant species when applied exogenously.” Beneficial substances such as seaweed extracts (SWEs), particularly the brown algae (Phaeophyceae), protein hydrolysates (PHs) and plant extracts (PEs) have been shown to play

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Mundaya N. Jithesh, Owen S.D. Wally, Iain Manfield, Alan T. Critchley, David Hiltz and Balakrishnan Prithiviraj

preformed. It was observed that the seaweed components elicited a genomewide transcriptional response by upregulating several known, positive regulators of NaCl tolerance (Prithiviraj et al., unpublished data). Additionally, there were many genes that were

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Jen A. Sembera, Erica J. Meier and Tina M. Waliczek

Nearly 10,000 different types of seaweed algae thrive in the world’s oceans and seas ( Abbott and Dawson, 1978 ; Fritsch, 1965 ). Algae in the genus Sargassum of the sargassum family (Sargassaceae) include more than 150 species distributed

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Raymond P. Poincelot

A seaweed/humus extract (ROOTS) was tested as a propagation biostimulant. Transplants from seed showed enhanced root, root hair, and shoot growth. Cultivars tested included: Broccoli `Bonaza', Coleus `Park's Bril1iant', Dahlia `Redskin', Eggplant `Early Bird', Gazania `Pinata', Geranium `Earliana' and `Hybrid Orbit', Impatiens `Shady Lady' and New Guinea `Tango', Marigolds `Gay Ladies' and `Climax', Nicotiana `Nikki', Pepper `Park's Whopper', Petunia `Total Madness', and Tomatoes `Sweet Million', `Good n Early', `Better Boy', `Early Girl', `Lady Luck' and `Super Steak'. Cuttings from citrus cultivars showed improved rooting (Lemon `Ponderosa', Lime `Bearss', and Orange `Calamondin'). Cuttings from succulents also showed improved propagation (Pedilanthus tithymaloides cucullatus, Senecio deflersii, and an unknown stapeliad species). Seaweed extracts, known growth stimulants, when fortified with humic acid, offer promise as a propagation biostimulant.

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H. Y. Hanna and A. J. Adams

Seaweed extract has been reported to have various beneficial effects on many crops. A study was conducted in 1989 and 1990 to evaluate the effects of Response 9-9-7, a seaweed extract fortified with NPK, on yield of staked tomatoes and cucumbers. Plants were sprayed to the runoff weekly, biweekly, every 3 weeks and every 4 weeks with 1:500, 1:250, 1:150 and 1:125 v/v Response/water respectively. Results indicate that spring tomatoes sprayed with Response 9-9-7 at all rates outyielded the check which was sprayed with plain water. However, the only significant difference was obtained when tomatoes were sprayed with 1:150 Response/water in 1989 and 1:500 in 1990. Response/water at 1:500 rate significantly increased the quality and marketable yield of cucumber in both years. Response 9-9-7 had no effect on yield of tomatoes grown in the summer under heat stress.

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A.J. Pertuit Jr.

Leonardite additions (0, 1/16, l/8, 1/4, or 1/3 volume leonardite/volume medium) were more effective if applied only before (Expt. 1) than if applied before and after transplanting (Expt. 2). In Expt. 1, root dry weight (4 weeks after transplanting) of marigold increased 58% to 152% with 1/3 leonardite (by volume) best; zinnia, 15% to 150%, with no differences from 1/8 to 1/3 volume; tomato, a 64% increase at 1/8, a 57% increase at 1/4, and a 47% increase at 1/3 volume, with no differences among 1/8 to 1/3 volume. In Expt. 2, 1/3 leonardite addition inhibited potential root growth. No differences in stem caliber or shoot length or dry weight were found in Expts. 1 or 2. Maxicrop soluble-extract powder seaweed drenches increased roots by ≈21%, as did Maxicrop cold processed seaweed extract liquid (1:500). All extracts were applied 4 times beginning a week after transplanting. The most significant find was a 65% increase in root dry weight and a 7% increase in stem caliber with Maxicrop cold processed seaweed extract drenches (1:200). No differences in shoot length or dry weight were found.