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Yuqi Li and Neil S. Mattson

Seaweed extracts and concentrates are used in agriculture and horticulture for its many beneficial effects on soil properties, plant growth, and crop yield ( Blunden et al., 1996 ; Khan et al., 2009 ). More than 18 million tons of seaweed products

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Karl Guillard and John C. Inguagiato

(NDVI) values for kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue lawn turf receiving seaweed extracts treatments across the growing seasons in 2013, 2014, and 2015 plus P values for source effects attributed to treatments, sampling dates, and treatment × date

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Giuseppe Colla, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Paolo Bonini and Youssef Rouphael

research to be beneficial to one or more plant species when applied exogenously.” Beneficial substances such as seaweed extracts (SWEs), particularly the brown algae (Phaeophyceae), protein hydrolysates (PHs) and plant extracts (PEs) have been shown to play

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Stuart R. Reitz and John T. Trumble

We examined two aspects of treating plants with a cytokinin-containing seaweed extract (SWE). In the first series of experiments, we tested the hypothesis that immature lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants provided with exogenous cytokinins could recover from defoliation by a generalist insect herbivore, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), more rapidly than plants without cytokinin supplements. However, the SWE inhibited growth of lima beans at all levels of herbivore damage. The SWE neither inhibited nor stimulated growth of tomatoes following defoliation. Because SWE effects largely were neutral for tomato growth, we conducted a second series of experiments to test the hypothesis that SWE treatments alter the attractiveness of tomato foliage to S. exigua larvae. In these experiments, we determined consumption of, and preference for, SWE-treated tomato foliage by S. exigua larvae. Repeated root applications of SWE led to increased consumption and preference by S. exigua. Repeated foliar applications did not alter consumption or preference compared with controls. Spodoptera exigua larvae gained significantly more mass when feeding on SWE-treated foliage compared with controls. While these data indicate that plant responses to exogenous cytokinin-containing materials depend on taxa and application method, the practical uses of SWE appear limited given the negative effects on plant growth and increased attractiveness of treated foliage to herbivores.

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Xunzhong Zhang, E.H. Ervin and R.E. Schmidt

A variety of organic materials such as humic substances, seaweed extracts (SWE), organic matter, and amino acids are being used as fertilizer supplements in commercial turfgrass management. Among them, SWE and humic acid (HA) are widely used in various biostimulant product formulations. These compounds have been reported to contain phytohormones and osmoprotectants such as cytokinins, auxins, polyamines, and betaines. Manufacturer claims are that these products may supplement standard fertility programs by reducing mineral nutrient requirements while improving stress tolerance. There is a lack of season-long, field-based evidence to support these claims. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of monthly field applications of SWE, HA, and high and low seasonal fertilization regimes on the physiological health of fairway-height creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). Plots were treated monthly with SWE at 16 mg·m-2 and HA (70% a.i.) at 38 mg·m-2 alone, or in combination, and were grown under low (20 kg·ha-1/month) or high nitrogen (50 kg·ha-1/month) fertilization regimes during 1996 and 1997. Endogenous antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, photochemical activity (PA), and turf quality were measured in July of each year. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased by 46% to 181%, accompanied by a PA increase of 9% to 18%, and improved visual quality of bentgrass in both years. There was no significant fertilization × supplement interaction. Although not part of our original objectives, it was noted that significantly less dollar spot (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Bennett) disease incidence occurred in supplement-treated bentgrass. Our results indicate that increased SOD activity in July due to SWE and/or HA applications improved overall physiological health, irrespective of fertilization regime. This suggests that these compounds may be beneficial supplements for reducing standard fertilizer and fungicide inputs, while maintaining adequate creeping bentgrass health.

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Mundaya N. Jithesh, Owen S.D. Wally, Iain Manfield, Alan T. Critchley, David Hiltz and Balakrishnan Prithiviraj

salt stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS Salt resistance screening. The Arabidopsis Col-0 T-DNA insertional mutants from seaweed extract ( To et al., 2007 ) transcriptome downregulated genes were obtained from the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center

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Timothy M. Spann and Holly A. Little

desirable to find ways of improving drought tolerance to improve production uniformity. Seaweed and seaweed extracts (SWE) have been used as soil amendments and fertilizers in agriculture for centuries, particularly in coastal temperate regions ( Blunden and

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Xunzhong Zhang, E.H. Ervin and R.E. Schmidt

Decline of sod quality during the transportation, storage, and transplant stages of sale is a primary economic concern of sod producers. However, the mechanisms of extending sod quality during storage, transportation, and transplantation remain unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the influences of selected plant metabolic enhancers (PMEs) seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum Jol.) extract (SWE), humic acid [93% a.i. (HA)], and propiconazole (PPC), on sod tolerance to stress during storage and posttransplant root growth of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) sod. The SWE + HA, and PPC were applied alone, or in a combination, to tall fescue 2 weeks before harvest. Photochemical efficiency (PE) of photosystem II was measured immediately before harvest. The harvested sod was subjected to high temperature stress (40 °C) for 72 or 96 hours. The heated sod was replanted in the field and posttransplant injury and root strength were determined. On average over 1999 and 2000, application of SWE (50 mg·m-2) + HA (150 mg·m-2), PPC (0.30 mL·m-2), and a combination of SWE + HA with PPC (0.15 mL·m-2), enhanced PE of preharvest sod by 8.5%, 9.1%, and 11.2%, respectively, and increased posttransplant rooting by 20.6%, 34.6%, and 20.2%, respectively. All PME treatments reduced visual injury except SWE + HA and SWE + HA + PPC in 1999. Extension of heat duration from 72 to 96 hours caused significantly more injury to the sod and reduced posttransplant rooting by 22.9% averaged over 2 years. The data suggest that foliar application of SWE + HA, PPC alone, or in a combination with SWE + HA, may reduce shipment heat injury and improve posttransplant rooting and quality of tall fescue sod. Chemical name used: 1-(2-(2,4-dichloropheny)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2yl)methyl-1-H-1,2,4-triazole [propiconazole (PPC)].

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J. Pablo Morales-Payan and William M. Stall

Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of rate combinations of nitrogen (N) and a soil-applied biostimulant based on seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) extract (SSE) on the growth of papaya seedlings for transplant production. Seedlings were grown in 180-mL Styrofoam containers filled with a sphagnum/vermiculite/perlite growing medium. N (0 to 2 g per plant) and SSE (drench, 0 to 1 mL per plant) were applied at sowing and 15 days after emergence. N and SSE rates affected overall growth as well as time to attain adequate size for transplanting. In general, increasing N rates resulted in increased growth, and adding SSE enhanced N effects. In terms of increasing overall transplant growth and decreasing the time required from emergence to adequate transplanting size, the best results were found at the highest N and SSE rates.

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J.M. Goatley Jr. and R.E. Schmidt

This study was conducted to determine if foliar-applied biostimulators could enhance harvestability and transplanting of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) sod. The systemic triazole fungicides propiconazole at 42 mg·m-2 and triadimefon at 150 mg·m-2 enhanced post-transplant rooting and sod strength of bluegrass. Propiconazole had the best sod enhancement effect, increasing sod tensile strength 23% and increasing transplant root lift strength 64% across three experiments. The synthetic cytokinin benzyladenine (BA) at 6 mg·m-2 and seaweed extract (SWE, a freeze-dried extract of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum) at 0.3 ml product/m 2 had little effect. The response to triadimefon was intermediate. Foliar applications of chelated Fe phosphate citrate at 112 mg·m-2 did not enhance sod strength or rooting of Kentucky bluegrass when applied either alone or in combination with the biostimulator materials. Chemical names used: l-(2-(2,4 -dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-l,3-dioxo1an-2-ylmethyl)-lH-l,2,4-triazole(propiconazole);1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-lH-(l,2,4-triazo1-l-yl)-butanone (triadimefon);6-benzylaminopurine (BA, benzyladenine).