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James R. Ballington, Barclay Poling, and Kerry Olive

plants. In Virginia, Pattison and Wolf (2007) have evaluated protected culture for season extension and report that a 7.3 × 60.9 tobacco greenhouse or high tunnel planted a density of ≈10 plants/m 2 can yield 619 g/plant for an approximate 60-d period

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Tiffany L. Maughan, Kynda R. Curtis, Brent L. Black, and Daniel T. Drost

, combined with year-round consumer demand, create the need for extended fruit production into the off season. The climatic conditions in the Intermountain West require the use of season extension technologies so that growers may successfully supply markets

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Daniel Rowley, Brent L. Black, Dan Drost, and Dillon Feuz

results indicate that high tunnels can effectively and economically be used in the Intermountain West as an early-season extension technique for strawberries. Fall planting dates for the in-ground tunnel and the east–west-facing vertical systems were

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Maegen Lewis, Melanie Stock, Brent Black, Dan Drost, and Xin Dai

are critical for optimizing cut flower production against regional constraints ( Ortiz et al., 2012 ; Wien, 2009 ). Surveys of growers emphasize this need with season extension, control of bloom timing, and cultivar selection as the top

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Anne K. Carter

In the northeastern United States, vegetable crop classes and growers' meetings are often held during winter months when field demonstrations are impossible. A pot-sized demonstration was set up in the greenhouse in May and Nov. 2002 as a student laboratory to show the effects of season extension materials on the early growth of winter squash. The treatments were black plastic mulch and rowcover, alone and in combination. The treatments were also placed on either a heated [18.3 °C (65 °F)] or unheated germination mat to simulate warmer and cooler spring soils. Butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) was sown in 10.2 × 10.2 × 11.43-cm (4 × 4 × 4.5 inches) pots in soilless medium. The plants were grown and observed for 30 days, then harvested and weighed. The plants in the greenhouse grew as expected of plants grown under similar conditions in the field. Bottom heat, mulch, and rowcover had an increasingly greater effect on the growth of subsequent leaves as shown by comparisons of leaves 1, 2, and 3. Warmer soils tended to have the greatest effect on all measured parameters, but this was not as obvious in the May experiment as it was in the November experiment. Thus, this pot demonstration can be used in a student laboratory. The pots and plants are small enough to transport to and set up at winter growers' meetings as well.

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Gene A. Giacomelli

temperatures will determine the approximate practical season extension application for any given location. From Both et al. (2007) , the nighttime air temperature in a single-span high tunnel 5.2 × 11 m during the spring season (April and May) in New Jersey

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David S. Conner and Kathleen Demchak

’Rourke, 2015 ). Potential benefits of protected berry culture include season extension, increased yield, and decreased pest pressure. For example, using high tunnels can increase raspberry yield (including a greater percentage of marketable berries) per area

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Rebecca Grube Sideman, Amanda Brown, Ruth Hazzard, and Heather Bryant

United States by using low tunnels and have identified cultivars and target transplant dates as a starting point for future work. Russo and Shefler (2012) also experimented with using season extension structures for onion production, demonstrating that

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Suzanne O’Connell, Cary Rivard, Mary M. Peet, Chris Harlow, and Frank Louws

( Carey et al., 2009 ; Wittwer and Castilla, 1995 ). Many growers are exploring and using high tunnel systems to cultivate crops for local markets ( Jett et al., 2004 ) as a result of the benefits, which include opportunities for season extension, crop

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Emmanuel Alves Dos Santos Hecher, Constance L. Falk, Juliette Enfield, Steven J. Guldan, and Mark E. Uchanski

environment. High tunnels can provide protection against some insects, early freezes, hail, and other weather events. High tunnels can also facilitate better market planning. Season extension technologies alter the growing environment equivalent to moving