The effects of gene B on susceptibility to chilling injury (CI) in two types of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) were investigated. Two pairs of near-isogenic lines with (BB) and without (B+ B+) gene B were included in the study: `Caserta' (B+ B+) and `Precocious Caserta' (BB) of the vegetable marrow type, and `Benning's Green Tint' (B+ B+) and `Benning's Yellow Tint' (BB) of the scallop type. Respiration and ethylene evolution at nonchilling temperature were consistently higher in marrows than in scallops. Gene B had no influence on respiratory rates at nonchilling temperatures; however, the presence of gene B enhanced the chilling-induced stimulation of respiration in both marrows and scallops. Temporal differences in the patterns of chilling-induced stimulation of ethylene evolution indicated a greater sensitivity to chilling in marrows than in scallops and in both types in the presence of gene B. Electrolyte leakage was decreased by storage at chilling temperature in both marrow genotypes and was not influenced by storage temperature in B+ B+ scallops, but was increased by storage at chilling temperature in BB scallops. Therefore, electrolyte leakage was not a good CI index for these summer squash.
Carlos Efraín Reyes-González, José Pablo Torres-Morán, Blanca Catalina Ramírez-Hernández, Liberato Portillo, Enrique Pimienta-Barrios and Martha Isabel Torres-Morán
, jelly-beans, lavender scallops, spider plant, and maria’s heart were used. Plant material was acquired from the CUCBA nursery, which has a collection of southern and central Mexico. These regions can be classified as warm temperate climate with dry
Nicole L. Shaw and Daniel J. Cantliffe
Mini or “baby” vegetables have become increasingly popular items for restaurant chefs and retail sales. Squash (Cucurbita pepo) are generally open-field cultivated where climate, insect, and disease pressures create challenging conditions for growers and shippers who produce and market this delicate, immature fruit. In order to overcome these challenges, in Spring 2003 and 2004, 18 squash cultivars, including zucchini, yellow-summer, patty pan/scallop, and cousa types, were grown hydroponically in a passively ventilated greenhouse and compared for yield of “baby”-size fruit. Squash were graded as “baby” when they were less than 4 inches in length for zucchini, yellow-summer, and cousa types and less than 1.5 inches diameter for round and patty pan/scallop types. In both seasons, `Sunburst' (patty pan) produced the greatest number of baby-size fruit per plant, while `Bareket' (green zucchini) produced the least. The zucchini-types produced between 16 and 25 baby-size fruit per plant in 2003. The yellow summer squash-types produced on average 45 baby fruit per plant. The production of the patty pan/scallop types ranged from 50 to 67 baby-size fruit per plant depending on cultivar. The cousa types produced approximately 30 baby-size fruit. Total yields were lower in 2004 due to a shortened season. Squash plants will produce numerous high quality baby-sized fruit when grown hydroponically in a reduced pesticide environment of a greenhouse where they can be harvested, packaged, and distributed to buyers daily. The cultivars Hurricane, Raven, Gold Rush, Goldy, Sunray, Seneca Supreme, Supersett, Butter Scallop, Sunburst, Patty Green Tint, Starship, Magda, and HA-187 could be used for hydroponic baby squash production.
Darrin Parmenter, Russell Nagata, Kent Cushman and Nancy Roe
Recently, an increasing number of restaurants in Palm Beach County, Florida, have been requesting squash (Cucurbita pepo) flowers from local vegetable growers. Typically, current field-grown squash cultivars produce a higher ratio of female to male flowers, with the emphasis on fruit production. However, a market for squash blossoms indicates a need for cultivars that produce higher numbers of consistently developing male flowers throughout the growing season. In order to evaluate male squash blossom production, 10 squash cultivars, including yellow-summer, zucchini, round, and scallop-types, and one compact-type pumpkin, were field-grown during the 2005–06 growing season. The average number of male flowers per plant by week was recorded for 7 weeks, starting when the first male flowers were identified within the entire trial. In addition to blossom counts, flower traits, such as bell height, depth, volume, and weight were also recorded. Preliminary results from the 2005 season indicate that the commercial yellow-summer squash cultivars, Mulitpik and Early Prolific Straightneck, and the zucchini cultivars, Jaguar and Raven, produced fewer male flowers on a week-by-week and total basis. The cultivar, White Bush Scallop, produced significantly more male flowers then any other entry, with an average of 9.8 male flowers per plant per week. Little or no difference was seen in bell height and depth among the 11 cultivars; however, two cultivars, Costa Romanesque and Hybrid Pam (compact pumpkin type) had significantly greater bell volumes and weights, indicating a much larger blossom size.
Harry S. Paris
Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) is grown in many temperate and subtropical regions, ranking high in economic importance among vegetable crops worldwide. A native of North America, summer squash has been grown in Europe since the Renaissance. There are six extant horticultural groups of summer squash: cocozelle, crookneck, scallop, straightneck, vegetable marrow, and zucchini. Most of these groups have existed for hundreds of years. Their differing fruit shapes result in their differential adaptations to various methods of culinary preparation. Differences in flavor, while often subtle, are readily apparent in some instances. The groups differ in geographical distribution and economic importance. The zucchini group, a relatively recent development, has undergone intensive breeding in the United States and Europe and is probably by far the most widely grown and economically important of the summer squash.
Christopher J. Currey and John E. Erwin
Our objectives were to assess the efficacy of various plant growth regulators (PGRs) on stem elongation and branching of 11 kalanchoe (Kalanchoe) species with ornamental characteristics: beauvard’s widow’s-thrill (K. beauvardii), K. glaucescens, lavender scallops or red-leaved kalanchoe (K. fedtschenkoi), K. longiflora, chandelier plant (K. manginii), marnier’s kalanchoe (K. marnieriana), K. millotii, flower dust plant (K. pumila), K. rosei, common kalanchoe or nentabos (K. rotundifolia), and K. streptantha. Foliar spray applications of deionized water, ancymidol (15−60 ppm), benzyladenine (75−300 ppm), chlormequat chloride (750−3000 ppm), daminozide (1250−5000 ppm), ethephon (250−1000 ppm), paclobutrazol (10−40 ppm), or uniconazole (5−20 ppm) were applied 2 weeks after plants were pinched. Stem length at the time of application and 4 weeks after applications and branch number were recorded. While effective chemicals and concentrations varied widely among species, paclobutrazol and uniconazole were identified as providing broad efficacy with respect to inhibition of stem elongation across all 11 species in this study. Additionally, benzyladenine and ethephon increased the number of branches for several species.
Michael P. Hoffmann, Richard W. Robinson, Margaret M. Kyle and Jonathan J. Kirkwyland
Seventy-six Cucurbita pepo L. cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated under field conditions for infestation levels and defoliation (leaf area consumed by beetles) by adult diabroticite beetles in 1992 and 1994. Striped and spotted cucumber beetles, Acalymma vittatum (F.) and Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber, respectively, were most common, but some western and northern corn rootworms, D. virgifera virgifera LeConte and D. barberi Smith and Lawrence, respectively, also were present. In general, pumpkin, delicata, acorn winter squash, scallop, and yellow straightneck summer squash types were the least infested and defoliated. Caserta/yellow, zucchini, caserta/zucchini, caserta, and precocious yellow straightneck types were the most infested and defoliated. The number of beetles per plant was correlated (r ≥ 0.72) with leaf defoliation and proportion of plants infested, indicating that beetle infestation is a good predictor of damage. The cultivars and breeding lines that were the least infested and defoliated can be used in breeding programs to develop desirable genotypes with reduced beetle preference. Conversely, those genotypes that were highly preferred have potential as trap crops for these beetle pests.
Thomas M. Gradziel, Bruce Lampinen, Joseph H. Connell and Mario Viveros
penetration and air circulation to the canopy interior. Flowers are numerous and produce abundant pollen. Flower petals are large and white with slightly scalloped margins and develop a characteristic reddening at the petal base as bloom progresses ( Fig. 3
Harry S. Paris and Aviva Hanan
axil. On the other hand, the other cultivar-groups of summer squash known as Crookneck, Scallop, and Straightneck, are multiple-flowering, that is, they can produce two, three, or even four flower buds at leaf axils. Worldwide, the former cultivar
(small, round), Acorn (turbinate, furrowed), Scallop (flat, scalloped), Crookneck (long, narrow neck), Straightneck (short, thick neck), and Ovifera Gourd (small, various shapes) ( Paris, 1986 , 2000 ). At the end of the 19th century, a mutation in the