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Edward L. McCoy

Root zone amendments are typically organic materials or inorganic materials of diverse mineralogy that when added to sand at modest rates of 5% to 20% by volume are capable of substantially and permanently altering the physical and chemical

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Keisha Rose-Harvey, Kevin J. McInnes, and James C. Thomas

Golf putting greens and sports fields that are designed to use a geotextile to retain a sand-based root zone mixture atop a drainage layer are an alternative to the popular design recommended by the U.S. Golf Association (USGA) where the root zone

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Ruying Wang, James W. Hempfling, Bruce B. Clarke, and James A. Murphy

Frequent, light sand topdressing is commonly practiced on golf course putting greens during the playing season to maintain firm, smooth surfaces and modify accumulating thatch ( Vavrek, 1995 ). Heavy topdressing rates increase wear on mower reels

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Brett Suhayda, Carolyn J. DeMoranville, Hilary A. Sandler, Wesley R. Autio, and Justine E. Vanden Heuvel

maintain good canopy architecture. Sanding is a cultural practice used in the northeastern United States and Wisconsin to manage the cranberry plant canopy. Typically, this practice is performed every 2 to 5 years with a 0.5- to 2-inch layer of sand spread

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Philip J. Brown, Lambert B. McCarty, Virgil L. Quisenberry, L. Ray Hubbard Jr., and M. Brad Addy

small (diameter, <0.08 mm) and, as a result of capillarity, they retain water and are not involved actively in soil drainage ( Brady and Weil, 2002 ). As a result of the presence of free-draining macropores, sand-based soils drain more rapidly than soils

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Thomas O. Green, John N. Rogers III, James R. Crum, Joseph M. Vargas Jr., and Thomas A. Nikolai

; Landschoot and McNitt, 1997 ; Liu et al., 1995 ; Markland et al., 1969 ; Williams et al., 1996 ). Supplementary cultural practices such as sand topdressing effectively reduce dollar spot as well ( Skorulski et al., 2010 ). Perhaps other supplementary

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James S. Owen Jr, Stuart L. Warren, Ted E. Bilderback, and Joseph P. Albano

consisted of pine bark amended with a mineral aggregate or coarse, washed builder's sand at 11% (by volume). The mineral aggregate (clay) was a 0.25 to 0.85 mm calcined, low volatile material palygorksite-bentonite from Ochlocknee, GA (Oil-Dri Corp. of

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Heather Hasandras, Kimberly A. Moore, and Lyn A. Gettys

diameter were filled to a depth of 8 inches with 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, or 0:100 (by volume) coarse builder’s sand (Muti-Purpose Sand; Sakrete, Charlotte, NC): sphagnum moss (Premier Horticulture, Quakertown, PA). A 15N–4P–10K controlled

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Timothy L. Grey, Mark Czarnota, Thomas Potter, and B. Todd Bunnell

( Anonymous, 1989 ; Footprint, 2008 ). Chand and Lembi (1991) , using a wettable powder formulation, indicated 88% dissipation of flurprimidol within 4 weeks of application and that the majority remained in the top 5 cm of sand. Data reported by the initial

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Kevin J. McInnes and James C. Thomas

Chronic dry spots often occur on the upper reaches of slopes on golf putting greens constructed with sand-based root zones, in part because water is quickly wicked downslope through the root zone after irrigation or rainfall. Lower water contents in