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Kil Sun Yoo, Leonard M. Pike, and Brian K. Hamilton

A simple and fast method for measuring low boiling point (LBP) volatile terpenoids in carrots (Daucus carota L.) was developed by using a direct headspace sampling technique. Seven LBP terpenoid compounds were separated with high sensitivity and consistency via gas chromatography. High boiling point terpenoids above terpinolene were not well characterizable. Standard compounds showed highly linear responses up to 10 μg.g-1, with a detection limit of 0.01 μg.g-1. We confirmed that high α- and β-pinene and/or total terpenoids contributed to harsh or oily flavors. Up to 40 samples can be analyzed in an 8-h day using this method, compared to 10 samples using previous methods.

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John F. Karlik, Peter B. Goodell, and Gary Osteen

Spider mites are the most commonly treated arthropod pest of roses grown for sale as plants in Kern County, California. One obstacle to possible reduction of acaricide use has been lack of a quantitative method for field evaluation of mite populations. A presence/absence (P/A) technique for mite sampling was evaluated in 1987-1991. Background data was collected in six fields of first-year and second-year rose plants in 1987 and 1989. A strong correlation existed between numbers of infested leaflets and leaves. P/A counts were similar among strata within first-year and second-year fields. A strong correlation existed between numbers of infested leaflets and leaves. In 1990 and 1991 P/A data was compared to mite counts obtained by brushing in replicated plots using leaves as sampling units. Acaricide applications have been made in the field on the basis of P/A count. Further work is underway to estimate the effects of treatment at several threshold levels of mite infestation as evaluated by P/A.

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E.A. Baldwin, M.O. Nisperos-Carriedo, and M.G. Moshonas

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit, cvs. Sunny and Solar Set, were analyzed at five ripening stages for ethylene and CO2 production. Homogenates from the same fruit were prepared for determination of color, flavor volatiles, sugars, and organic acids. Changes in the levels of these compounds were compared to the pattern of climacteric ethylene production. Of the flavor volatiles measured, only eugenol decreased during ripening in both cultivars and 1-penten-3-one in `Sunny' tomatoes. Ethanol and trans-2-trans- 4-decadienal levels showed no change or fluctuated as the fruit ripened while all other volatiles measured (cis- 3-hexenol, acetaldehyde, cis- 3-hexenal, trans-2- hexenal, hexenal acetone, 6-methyl-5 -hepten-2-one, geranylacetone, and 2-isobutylthiazole) increased in concentration, peaking in the turning, pink, or red stage of maturity. Synthesis of some volatile compounds occurred simultaneously with that of climacteric ethylene, CO2 and lycopene production. `Solar Set' fruit exhibited higher levels than `Sunny' of all flavor components except ethanol and hexanal in the red stage. There were no differences in organic acid levels between the cultivars; however, `Solar Set' had higher levels of sugars. Changes in acid and sugar levels showed no temporal relationship to climacteric ethylene or CO2 production.

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John A. Biernbaum, William Argo, and Janet Pumford

Unlike vegetable and fruit crops, where petiole analysis has been used for many years, root media analysis is the primary method of checking fertility status of container-grown flowering greenhouse crops. With the emphasis on lower constant water-soluble fertilizer rates to prevent nutrient runoff, petiole analysis may be a better indicator of N and K status. During Fall 1993, samples were collected from 10 flowering pot plant species subirrigated with either 50, 100, or 200 mg·liter–1 N and K concentrations. During Spring 1995, samples were collected from major bedding plant species and Easter lilies. Sap was extracted using a hydraulic press and nitrate and potassium were measured with the Cardy flat electrode ion meters. Sampling methods and protocols will be presented with results of sampling technique experiments. Floriculture plant nutrition researchers were contacted to identify other research in progress, potential applications, and possible concerns with using this technique. Further research needed will be identified.

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Paul Skroth, Jim Nienhuis, Geunhwa Jung, and Dermont Coyne

Knowledge of genetic relationships and genetic diversity among accessions is essential for the efficient construction, maintainance and utilization of large ex-situ germplasm collections. Furthermore, streamlining of large collections into care collections necessitates validation of germplasm sampling techniques. DNA molecular markers provide potentially unbiased estimators of genome diversity end may facilitate organization, maintainance, and sampling of plant genetic resources. Our data suggests that RAPD markers will be o good tool for testing tore collection concepts and organizing genetic diversity in common bean. However, the genomic distribution of markers is unknown. Currently we are using recombinant inbred (RI) populations to place RAPD markers in the context of the bean genetic map. We hove evaluated the the distribution of RAPD markers in three RI populations: Bat93 × Jalo EEP558, PC50 × Xan159, and BAC6 × HT7719. Cultivated P.vulgaris has two primary renters of diversity Mesoamerican and Andean, the RI populations used for mapping RAPD markers ore Meso × Andean, Andean × Andean, and Meso × Meso crosses respectively. In the Bat93 × Jalo EEP558 population 383 markers have been mapped for a map length of 735 cM. However, approximately 150 of these markers ore members of 9 dusters which span only 90 cM. This inter gone pool mop is being integrated with linkage mops constructed in the other two populations to compare within and between gene pool marker distributions and to evaluate clustering of markers on the different mops. Implications for the application of RAPD markers will be discussed.

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Andrew J. Price, Craig S. Charron, Arnold M. Saxton, and Carl E. Sams

A study was conducted to quantify volatiles generated from Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czerniak) tissue incorporated into soils under controlled conditions. Mustard residues were incorporated into noncovered and covered soils that varied by texture, temperature, moisture, pH, or sterility (autoclaved or nonautoclaved). Sandy loam soil had 38% more allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) than clay loam soil. AITC concentration in 45 °C soil was 81% higher than in soil at 15 °C, and 56% higher in covered compared to noncovered treatments. The microbial catabolism of AITC was suggested by the result that AITC concentration in autoclaved soils was over three times that measured in nonautoclaved soils. The highest AITC level detected (1.71 μmol·L–1) occurred in the autoclaved covered soil. Several factors also influenced CO2 evolution. At 30 or 45 °C, CO2 concentration was at least 64% higher than at 15°C. The covered soil had over twice the CO2 found in the noncovered soil, and the nonautoclaved soil treatment yielded twice the CO2 measured in the autoclaved soil. There were no main effect differences among soil moisture, soil pH, and soil texture treatments for CO2 concentrations. This information could be helpful in defining ideal soil conditions for field scale experiments. Additionally, this study demonstrates a sampling technique for testing fumigation potential of biofumigation and solarization systems that may have the potential to replace methyl bromide.

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William B. Evans and Mark A. Bennett

A significant portion of the Great Lakes region's processing tomato crop is used to make whole fruit and diced products, where fruit color and textural uniformity are important. Soil and fertilizer studies were undertaken to better understand the role of soil fertility and potassium application on the color disorder known as internal white tissue (IWT) under this region's conditions and in area soils. During 2 years of replicated potassium rate trials in Ohio, tomato yield was not significantly altered by broadcast potassium applications. Potassium application rate was inversely correlated with frequency and severity of IWT in each season, and positively correlated with titratable acidity. The ability of split applications to influence IWT severity was not significantly different than that of preplant applications. IWT symptom frequency and severity was correlated with elemental concentrations in the fruit, leaves, and soil. In 1998, severity of IWT symptoms was positively correlated with shoulder tissue calcium and sodium concentrations, and negatively correlated with concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and nitrogen. Correlations for other nutrients, including potassium, were less clear. A companion study of six grower fields during the second year, using grid sampling techniques and the IWT-susceptible Peto 696 cultivar, found significant variability of IWT symptoms within and among fields. Variability within fields was correlated with soil nutrient concentrations. These data indicate researchers may be able to develop recommendations for field mapping and precision management strategies that can reduce the levels of IWT for area growers.

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W.C. Lin, J.W. Hall, and A. Klieber

A video-imaging technique, using commercial software to process images obtained at 550 nm, was established to estimate chlorophyll content of cucumber fruit disks. The chlorophyll content of excised disks was extracted, determined, and regressed on the video-image grey level. They were linearly related. The change in grey level of the whole visible image accurately indicated the change of green color during fruit development on the vine and the loss of green color after 1 week of storage at 13C. The relationship of the chlorophyll content on grey level was quadratic for three imaging methods: 1) average grey level of the five disks; 2) average grey level of the whole cucumber image; and 3) average grey level of central one-third of the whole cucumber image. Chlorophyll content was most highly correlated to the grey level of the disks themselves (residual SD = 6.74 μg·cm-2), but this sampling technique was destructive. Both one-third of the fruit image (SD = 9.25 μg·cm-2) and the whole image (SD = 9.36 μg·cm-2) provided satisfactory precision. For simplicity, whole-fruit imaging is suitable for estimating fruit chlorophyll content and for quantifying fruit green color intensity. Potential use of this technique in product sorting and shelf life prediction of long English cucumbers is discussed.

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Michael V. Mickelbart

). Furthermore, nutrient concentrations of lamina and petiole were determined to provide information for proper sampling techniques. Materials and Methods Field characteristics. Leaves were collected from Acer × freemanii Celebration® trees that

Open access

Noa K. Lincoln, Theodore Radovich, Kahealani Acosta, Eli Isele, and Alyssa Cho

.X. Robison, D.J. 2003 Nondestructive and rapid estimation of hardwood foliar nitrogen status using the SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter For. Ecol. Mgt. 181 331 338 Dhandhar, D.G. Bhargava, B.S. 1993 Leaf sampling technique for nutritional diagnosis in custard apple