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David G. Hall and L.G. Albrigo

per flush shoot and density of flush shoots. In either case, sampling procedures for quantifying the abundance of flush shoots in a block of trees would be of value for pest management decisions. Citrus trees produce at least several flushes of new

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Michael V. Mickelbart

often do not have the resources to test a large number of plants or portions of plants. It is therefore crucial that sampling procedures are designed to collect the most representative samples within a plot or nursery. Furthermore, because nutrient

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Noa K. Lincoln, Theodore Radovich, Kahealani Acosta, Eli Isele, and Alyssa Cho

nutrient analyses are employed through tissue-sampling methods, which are contingent on sampling location, plant part selected, and the stage of growth. Specific sampling protocols may be dependent on the crop type and purpose ( Munson and Nelson, 1990

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Kevin R. Kosola, Beth Ann A. Workmaster, James S. Busse, and Jeffrey H. Gilman

Sampling fine roots from mature trees for experimental analyses of physiological and morphological traits (e.g., Brundrett et al., 1990 ; Comas et al., 2002 ; Guo et al., 2004 ; King et al., 2005 ; Kosola et al., 2001 , 2006 ; Pregitzer et

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Hrvoje Rukavina and Harrison G. Hughes

(short days) appears to be the key factor ( Ashby and Hellmers, 1959 ; Van Esbroeck et al., 2004 ). This study was initiated to evaluate the influence of sampling time from the field (the combined effect of photoperiod and vernalization), N fertilization

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J.F. Karlik, P.B. Goodell, and G.W. Osteen

We thank Ben Erickson for arranging locations for initial sampling and Montebello Roses for cooperation in the 1990–91 field study. The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Smith–Lever funding provided support for a portion of this project. The cost of

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James E. Altland, Leslie Morris, Jennifer Boldt, Paul Fisher, and Rosa Raudales

paclobutrazol accumulation in recirculated irrigation indicates a need for periodic monitoring of paclobutrazol in ponds and storage tanks. Although standards exist for collecting water samples for analysis of organic compounds ( Rice et al., 2012 ; U

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John M. Kauffman, John C. Sorochan, and Dean A. Kopsell

been physically measured both before and after compressing the sample with various weights ( Beard, 1976 ; Callahan et al., 1997 ; Engel and Alderfer, 1967 ; McWhirter and Ward, 1976 ; Volk, 1972 ; Waddington, 1992 ). Compressing the sample is

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Samuel Salazar-García, Isidro J.L. González-Durán, and Martha E. Ibarra-Estrada

of trees to fertilizer applications ( Salazar-García, 2002 ). In most commercial avocado orchards, 4- to 7-month-old leaves are sampled for nutrient analyses ( Crowley et al., 1993 ; Dixon et al., 2007 ; Maldonado-Torres et al., 2007 ; Salazar

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James A. Taylor, John-Paul Praat, and A. Frank Bollen

given property. Second, given no a priori information on variability in a production system, they provide a basis for determining sampling density, particularly for grid-based sampling. An understanding of how crop production varies spatially within a