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Longxing Hu, Tao Hu, Xunzhong Zhang, Huancheng Pang, and Jinmin Fu

stress may induce osmotic and oxidative stress in plants, which leads to cellular adaptive responses such as the accumulation of compatible organic solutes and detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) ( Zhu, 2001 ). Salt stress inhibited the growth

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Fei Xiong, Jieren Liao, Yuanchun Ma, Yuhua Wang, Wanping Fang, and Xujun Zhu

., 2009 ). In some regions of the world, salinity is the most serious threat to agriculture and the environment ( Golldack et al., 2014 ). Salt stress can cause osmotic stress, ion poisoning, and secondary stresses (secondary stresses, such as nutritional

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Hong Jiang, Zhiyuan Li, Xiumei Jiang, and Yong Qin

has broad market prospects ( Zeng and He, 2019 ). C. tinctoria is grown widely in Xinjiang and northern China and is an important resource that can be further developed. At present, in studies of salt stress in plants, the effects of salt stress on

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Shanshan Sun, Mengying An, Liebao Han, and Shuxia Yin

Salt stress is one of the most serious abiotic stresses affecting plant growth and productivity in many parts of the world ( Yusuf et al., 2008 ). High salt content in plant tissues often leads to limited water uptake and ion imbalances due to

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Melek Ekinci, Ertan Yildirim, Atilla Dursun, and Metin Turan

Turkey, ≈2 million ha of cultivated land is affected by salinity and alkalinity ( Gungor and Erezol, 1994 ). Salt stress affects plant physiology, both at whole plant as well as cellular levels, through osmotic and ionic stress. High salt concentrations

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Pedro Gonzalez, James P. Syvertsen, and Ed Etxeberria

-Nishimura, I. Maeshima, M. Fukaki, H. Mimura, T. 2009 Dynamic aspects of ion accumulation by vesicle traffic under salt stress in Arabidopsis Plant Cell Physiol. 50 2023 2033 Hasegawa, P.M. Bressan, R.A. Zhu, J.K. Bohnert, H.J. 2000 Plant cellular and

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Yingmei Ma and Emily Merewitz

Salt stress is a major issue for turfgrass management around the world. Use of reclaimed, nonpotable water that may contain high levels of salts is becoming a common management practice ( Duncan et al., 2008 ). Additionally, numerous turf areas are

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Ao Liu, Jibiao Fan, Margaret Mukami Gitau, Liang Chen, and Jinmin Fu

’acov et al., 1998 ). It was also observed that NO was able to mediate plant responses to various abiotic stresses. Uchida et al. (2002) reported that NO has a positive effect on rice ( Oryza sativa L.) under heat and salt stresses. Laspina et al. (2005

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Kai Jia, Cunyao Yan, Huizhuan Yan, and Jie Gao

different from turnips in other regions ( Shi et al., 2011 ; Tuo, 2016 ). Soil salinization is a major threat to global food security. Up to 20% of the world’s irrigated land has been affected by salt stress ( Abogadallah, 2010 ). The salinization area

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Xunzhong Zhang, Wenli Wu, Erik H. Ervin, Chao Shang, and Kim Harich

Pessarakli, 2010 ; Sun et al., 2015 ). Turfgrasses increasingly experience salt stress because of the accelerated salinization of agricultural lands and increasing demand on the use of reclaimed or other secondary saline water for irrigation of turfgrass