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James A. Gagliardi and Mark H. Brand

Hampshire have passed legislation that prohibits the importation, sale, trade, distribution, and related activities of several important ornamental plants ( Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources, 2006 ; New Hampshire Department of Agriculture

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Diane M. Narem, Mary Hockenberry Meyer, Chengyan Yue, and Nicole Roth

Master Tag (Montague, MI). Store employees were instructed to staple or insert the custom plant tags to all native grass and sedge containers at each garden center. Fig. 1. Point of sale display poster and plant tags used in native grass marketing study

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James R. Ballington

Public funding for land-grant university plant breeding programs has declined to the point that alternative sources of funding have had to be identified in order for these programs to continue. Small fruit breeding programs at land-grant universities in the southern region of the U.S. now derive their support for day to day operations from a number of alternative funding sources including commodity organizations and research foundations. Royalty income generated from sale of plants of patented cultivars has also become a significant source of support for essentially all land grant programs. In addition, cooperative agreements and contracts with partners in private industry play a prominent role in support for several programs, and these will likely increase significantly in the near future. At present, U.S. plant patents are generally applied for upon the release of cultivars from small fruit breeding programs at land grant universities in the southern region, with some move toward trademarking. Releases are generally nonexclusive within the region, and either exclusive or nonexclusive outside the region. The use of germplasm from other breeding programs usually carries with it the expectation of mutual exchange and use of germplasm and/or sharing of royalty income from cultivars derived from such germplasm.

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John R. Clark

James N. Moore, who began the University of Arkansas fruit breeding program in 1964, filed the first plant patent for a cultivar from the program in 1982, `Reliance' grape. Before that, he released six nonpatented cultivars. `Reliance' was anticipated to be more adapted to the midwestern U.S. than Arkansas and the South, and Moore was interested in program support outside Arkansas for those that would benefit from this development. He found that nurseries and producers were receptive to the idea of patented cultivars and paying per plant royalties on new developments. In 1984, eight nurseries were licensed to propagate `Reliance'. Since that time the fruit breeding program has released 40 cultivars, of which 25 have been plant patented. Licensing for the patented cultivars has been on a nonexclusive basis with nurseries in the U.S., and exclusive agreements for defined territories have been exercised outside the U.S. Total license agreements in early 2006 total >300. Trademarking was first used in 2003 for the first primocane-fruiting blackberry cultivars. Breeding agreements were put in place 2003 as a way to generate program support and move germplasm developments into additional commercial channels. Testing agreements have been expanded outside the U.S., with fees paid to test genotypes and provide first option for exclusive licensing. Proprietary releases have been of benefit to the University of Arkansas and intellectual property protection of new developments should continue to be used.

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Bruce A. Cunliffe

It is common practice to propagate grasses by division in the spring rather than the fall. This is particularly true of warm-season grasses. Production schedules for grasses do not often fit the general production pattern of other herbaceous perennial or woody crops. Five ornamental grass species were studied: Schizachyrium scoparium, Sporobolus heterolepsis, Calamagrostis × acutiflora `Karl Foerster', Miscanthus sinensis `Purpurascens', and Miscanthus sinensis `Variegatus'. Uniform divisions based on species were planted in 4-inch (480-ml) pots, #1 (2780-ml), and #2 (6240-ml) containers. Fall divisions were done between 28 Oct. and 10 Nov. 1997. Spring divisions occurred between 30 Apr. and 7 May 1998. The experiment is a randomized complete-block design blocking on pot size. All containers were over-wintered under the same cover of plastic, straw, and plastic. Plants were evaluated for post-winter survival and growth. Plants were given a visual rating (0-3) every 2 weeks to assess salability. Spring survival of fall divisions was 99% for S. scoparium, C. × acutiflora `Karl Foerster', and M. sinensis `Purpurascens'. M. sinensis `Variegatus', and S. heterolepsis each had ≈50% survival. Fall divisions reached a salable rating a minimum of 2 weeks ahead of spring divisions. These results indicate that some ornamental grass species may benefit from fall rather than spring handling.

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Carolyn F. Scagel

Using several different ericaceous ornamental species, we compared the growth, mineral nutrition, and composition of plants in response to growing media amended with varying proportions of sphagnum moss peat (peat) or coir dust (coir). Plants were grown for 16 weeks in media consisting of 80% composted Douglas fir bark with 20% peat, 20% coir, or 10% peat and 10% coir. Sixteen weeks after planting, decreases in extractable P were larger in peat-amended medium than the coir-amended medium, while decreases in extractable NH4-N and NO3-N were larger in the coir-amended medium. In general, leaf and stem dry weight, the number of leaves and stems, and total stem length increased with increasing proportion of coir in the medium while root dry weight either increased (Kalmia latifolia), decreased (Rhododendron, Gaultheria), or was not influenced by increasing the proportion of coir in the medium. The composition of the growing medium also influenced aspects of plant marketability and quality including: leaf greenness (SPAD), plant form (e.g., number of leaves per length of stem), and partitioning of biomass (e.g., root to shoot ratio). Nutrient uptake and fertilizer use was significantly different between the media types. Depending on the cultivar, we found that the coir-amended medium resulted in higher uptake or availability of several nutrients than peat-amended medium. Up take or availability of N, P, K, Ca, and S was enhanced for several cultivars, while uptake or availability of Mg, Fe, and B was similar between media types. Most cultivars/species growing in the coir-amended medium had higher production or accumulation of proteins and amino acids in stems than plants growing in peat-amended medium, while the production of proteins and amino acids in roots was lower in plants growing in coir-amended than in peat-amended medium. For the cultivars/species we tested, coir is a suitable media amendment for growing ericaceous plants and may have beneficial effects on plant quality.

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Cheryl R. Boyer, Janet C. Cole, and Mark E. Payton

. Cuttings from plants on sale blocks were used by 56% of nurseries with anthracnose and 24% of nurseries without anthracnose. Rooted cuttings or liner stock were purchased from elsewhere by 26% of nurseries with anthracnose and 4% of nurseries without

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Olha Sydorovych, Cary L. Rivard, Suzanne O’Connell, Chris D. Harlow, Mary M. Peet, and Frank J. Louws

production system. Because there are several different ways growers market their tomatoes, resulting sale prices may vary. Interviewed growers stated that they sell to a wholesaler, directly to a retailer, through various farmers’ markets, and/or via

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David Karp

. simonii ) or Apricot plum. This was obtained in China by a French consul, Eugene Simon, and sent to Paris in 1867; it was offered for sale by eastern U.S. nurseries as early as 1881 ( Burbank, 1914 ; Hedrick, 1911 ). Burbank later described it as “a large

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Jonathan M. Frantz, James C. Locke, and Dharmalingam S. Pitchay

important characteristic for sale of this product. Watering and compaction. Only one wet/dry cycle for each treatment is shown for simplicity, but it illustrates the variance in moisture content each day at each level ( Fig. 3 ). The tops of each pouch